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Innovation : mesures, rendements et concurrence

Listed author(s):
  • Bruno Crépon
  • Emmanuel Duguet

[eng] Innovation: Measurements, Returns and Competition Innovation can be considered from the upstream angle, by looking at corporate research expenditure, and from the downstream angle, by looking at the number of patents filed. These two indicators are highly compatible as measurements of innovation, but are still not flawless. The unobservable factors behind innovation (staff skills, the importance of sales functions, etc.) probably go as far to explaining the number of patents filed by companies as does research. The number of patents would also appear to be a better measurement of innovation for large firms than for small firms. Yet even an imperfect measurement of innovation provides some answers to two important questions surrounding industrial policy: that of the return on research and that of the impact of the innovative activity of competitive firms. Although research and development returns to scale are on the whole constant, basic research appears to be substantially more productive than both applied research and development. As for competition in innovation, stepping up the research carried out in a sector normally reduces each firm's chances of finding an innovation first. [fre] Innovation : mesures, rendements et concurrence L'effort d'innovation peut être appréhendé en amont, par les dépenses de recherche des entreprises et en aval, par le nombre de brevets déposés. Ces deux indicateurs montrent une forte compatibilité comme mesure de l'innovation, mais restent encore imparfaits. Il est probable que les facteurs non observables concourant à l'innovation (la qualification du personnel, l'importance des fonctions commerciales, etc.) expliquent autant que la recherche le nombre de brevets déposés par les entreprises. Il semble aussi que le nombre de brevets soit une meilleure mesure de l'innovation pour les grandes firmes que pour les petites. La mesure, même imparfaite, de l'innovation permet d'apporter des éléments de réponse à deux importantes questions de politique industrielle : celle des rendements de la recherche et celle de l'impact de l'activité innovatrice menée par des entreprises concurrentes. Si, globalement, le rendement d'échelle de la recherche et développement est constant, la recherche fondamentale apparaît comme nettement plus productive que la recherche appliquée et que le développement. Quant à la concurrence en matière d'innovation, l'augmentation de la recherche faite dans un secteur diminuerait les chances de chacune des firmes de trouver une innovation en premier. [spa] Innovaciôn : mediciones, rendimientos y competencia El esfuerzo de innovaciôn puede medirse, aguas arriba, por los gastos de investigaciôn de las empresas, y, aguas abajo, por el numéro de patentes registradas. Ambos indicadores se complementan con creces a la hora de medir la innovaciôn, pero todavfa quedan imperfectos. Es probable que unos factores no medibles que contribuyen a la innovaciôn (la cualificaciôn del personal, la importancia de las funciones comerciales, etc.) expliquen del mismo modo que la investigaciôn el numéro de patentes registradas por las empresas. Parece también que la cantidad de patentes ofrece una mediciôn de la innovaciôn mâs eficiente para las grandes firmas que para las pequenas. La mediciôn, aunque imperfecta, de la innovaciôn nos facilita unos datos que permiten en parte encontrar una respuesta a dos cuestiones industriales de suma importancia : la de los rendimientos de la investigaciôn y la del impacto de la actividad innovadora por parte de empresas competidoras. Si, de manera general, el rendimiento de escala del departamento I+D es constante, la investigaciôn fundamental parece, con mucho, mâs productiva que la investigaciôn aplicada y el desarrollo. En cuanto a la competencia en materia de innovaciôn, el aumento de la investigaciôn dentro de un sector determinado, limitarïa las posibilidades para cada una de las firmas de ser la primera en encontrar una innovaciôn.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 275 (1994)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 121-134

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1994_num_275_1_5894
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1994.5894
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  1. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
  2. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 287-343 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Glenn C. Loury, 1979. "Market Structure and Innovation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(3), pages 395-410.
  5. Hausman, Jerry & Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi, 1984. "Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents-R&D Relationship," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 909-938, July.
  6. Gilbert, Richard J & Newbery, David M G, 1982. "Preemptive Patenting and the Persistence of Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 514-526, June.
  7. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 681-700, May.
  8. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Applications to Poisson Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 701-720, May.
  9. David Encaoua & Pierre Mohnen & Emmanuel Duguet & Bruno Crépon, 1993. "Diffusion du savoir et incitation à l'innovation : le rôle des accords de coopération en recherche et développement," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 266(1), pages 47-63.
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