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Mesurer le rendement de l'innovation

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  • Bruno Crépon
  • Emmanuel Duguet
  • Jacques Mairesse

Abstract

[ger] Die Rentabilität der Innovation, das heißt die Produktivitätsge-winne der Unternehmen, die der Forschung zuzuschreiben sind, kann nach zwei Methoden bewertet werden. Bei der ersten - der traditionelleren - wird eine bestimmte Anzahl angemeldeter Patente herangezogen; sie ist jedoch unzulänglich, da die Entscheidung, eine Innovation patentieren zu lassen, je nach Unternehmen sehr unterschiedlich ist. Die zweite Methode - die jüngere - gibt eine zusätzliche und zufriedenstellendere Messung der Innovation, da der Anteil der weniger als fünf Jahre alten Produkte am Umsatz der Unternehmen gemessen wird. Diese Methode hat den Vorteil, daß sowohl die Innovationen als auch die Verbesserungen, ja sogar die Produktbeschränkungen berücksichtigt werden. Insgesamt können mit diesen beiden Messungen die bedeutenden Produktivitätsgewinne, die der Forschung im verarbeitenden Gewerbe zu verdanken sind, in vergleichbaren Proportionen erklärt werden. Allerdings ermöglicht der zweite Ansatz eine bessere Berücksichtigung der Effekte bestimmter Variablen, wie des Nachfrageimpulses oder der Dynamik der Technologie. Da es sich um qualitativere Messungen handelt, würden sie zumindest genauso die Entscheidung der Unternehmen, Forschung zu betreiben, und den Betrag der Summen, die sie hierfür zu verwenden bereit sind, wie ihre Größe, ihren Marktanteil oder ihre Diversifizierung erklären. [fre] Évaluer le rendement de l’innovation, c’est-à-dire estimer les gains de productivité des entreprises imputables à la recherche, peut se faire de deux façons. La première, plus traditionnelle, utilise le nombre de brevets déposés, mais reste insuffisante car la décision de breveter une innovation varie beaucoup d’une entreprise à l’autre. La seconde, plus récente, donne une mesure complémentaire et plus satisfaisante de l’innovation en mesurant la part des produits de moins de cinq ans dans le chiffre d’affaires des entreprises. Elle a l’avantage de prendre en compte à la fois les innovations mais aussi les améliorations voire les imitations de produits. Globalement, ces deux mesures permettent d’expliquer dans des proportions comparables les gains importants de productivité dus à la recherche dans l’industrie manufacturière. Cependant, la seconde approche permet de mieux prendre en compte les effets de variables comme l’impulsion de la demande ou la dynamique propre de la technologie. Plus qualitatives, elles expliqueraient au moins autant la décision des entreprises de faire de la recherche et le montant des sommes que celles-ci sont disposées à y consacrer que leur taille, leur part de marché ou leur diversification. [eng] The return on innovation, i. e. corporate productivity gains from research, can be estimated in two ways. The first, more traditional method draws on the number of patents filed. However, it is inadequate since the decision to patent an innovation varies a great deal from one firm to the next. The second, more recent method provides a complementary and more satisfactory measurement of innovation by determining the share of products less than five years old in corporate turnovers. This has the advantage of taking into account both product innovations and improvements or imitations. On the whole, these two measurements can be used to explain substantial productivity gains due to manufacturing industry research in comparable proportions. The second approach, however, takes better account of the effects of variables such as demand stimuli and the specific technology dynamic. As they are more qualitative, they are deemed to explain at least as much a firm’s decision to carry out research and the sums that they are willing to invest therein as their size, their market share and their diversification. [spa] Medir el rendimiento de la innovación, o sea evaluar las ganancias de productividad de las empresas debidas a la investigación puede llevarse a cabo de dos maneras. Una, más tradicional, se basa sobre la cantidad de patentas depositadas, pero es todavía insuficiente ya que la decisión de patentar una innovación varía mucho según la empresa. Otra, más reciente, facilita una medición complementaria y más satisfactoria de la innovación al medir la proporción de los productos de menos de cinco años en el volumen de negocios de las empresas. Tiene la ventaja de tomar en cuenta a la vez las innovaciones, las mejoras e incluso las imitaciones de los productos. Globalmente, estas dos mediciones permiten explicar en unas proporciones idénticas las fuertes ganancias de productividad debidas a la innovación en la industria manufacturera. Sin embargo, el segundo enfoque permite considerar con más eficacia los efectos de unas variables como el impulso de la demanda o la dinámica propia de la tecnología. Siendo más cualitativas, estas variables permiten tanto como el tamaño, la cuota de mercado o la diversificación de las empresas, explicar su decisión de dedicarse a la investigación y las sumas que éstas le dedican.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruno Crépon & Emmanuel Duguet & Jacques Mairesse, 2000. "Mesurer le rendement de l'innovation," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 334(1), pages 65-78.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2000_num_334_1_7532
    DOI: 10.3406/estat.2000.7532
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2000.7532
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Khalid M. Al-Shuaibi, 2016. "A Structural Equation Model of CSR and Performance: Mediation by Innovation and Productivity," Journal of Management and Sustainability, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 6(2), pages 139-153, June.
    2. Frédérique Savignac, 2006. "The impact of financial constraints on innovation: evidence from french manufacturing firms," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques v06042, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
    3. Emilie-Pauline Gallié & Diègo Legros, 2012. "Firms’ human capital, R&D and innovation: a study on French firms," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 581-596, October.
    4. Michele Benvenuti & Luca Casolaro & Elena Gennari, 2014. "Metrics of Innovation: Measuring the Italian Gap," Politica economica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 5-50.
    5. OUNIR, Abdessamad, 2012. "Libéralisation financière et investissement des entreprises marocaines [Financial liberalization and investment of the Moroccan firms]," MPRA Paper 71798, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2012.
    6. Hajjem, Olfa & Ayadi, Mohamed & Garrouste, Pierre, 2011. "Complementarities between organizational changes, R&D activity and technological cooperation for the French manufacturing firms," MPRA Paper 34617, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Dostie, Benoit, 2014. "Innovation, Productivity, and Training," IZA Discussion Papers 8506, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Sdiri, Hanen & Ayadi, Mohamed, 2011. "Rôle de l'internationalisation des entreprises tunisiennes de service dans la promotion de l'innovation [Role of the Tunisian service firms internationalization in promoting innovation]," MPRA Paper 34036, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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