IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/prs/ecstat/estat_0336-1454_2000_num_334_1_7532.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Mesurer le rendement de l'innovation

Author

Listed:
  • Bruno Crépon
  • Emmanuel Duguet
  • Jacques Mairesse

Abstract

[ger] Die Rentabilität der Innovation, das heißt die Produktivitätsge-winne der Unternehmen, die der Forschung zuzuschreiben sind, kann nach zwei Methoden bewertet werden. Bei der ersten - der traditionelleren - wird eine bestimmte Anzahl angemeldeter Patente herangezogen; sie ist jedoch unzulänglich, da die Entscheidung, eine Innovation patentieren zu lassen, je nach Unternehmen sehr unterschiedlich ist. Die zweite Methode - die jüngere - gibt eine zusätzliche und zufriedenstellendere Messung der Innovation, da der Anteil der weniger als fünf Jahre alten Produkte am Umsatz der Unternehmen gemessen wird. Diese Methode hat den Vorteil, daß sowohl die Innovationen als auch die Verbesserungen, ja sogar die Produktbeschränkungen berücksichtigt werden. Insgesamt können mit diesen beiden Messungen die bedeutenden Produktivitätsgewinne, die der Forschung im verarbeitenden Gewerbe zu verdanken sind, in vergleichbaren Proportionen erklärt werden. Allerdings ermöglicht der zweite Ansatz eine bessere Berücksichtigung der Effekte bestimmter Variablen, wie des Nachfrageimpulses oder der Dynamik der Technologie. Da es sich um qualitativere Messungen handelt, würden sie zumindest genauso die Entscheidung der Unternehmen, Forschung zu betreiben, und den Betrag der Summen, die sie hierfür zu verwenden bereit sind, wie ihre Größe, ihren Marktanteil oder ihre Diversifizierung erklären. [fre] Évaluer le rendement de l’innovation, c’est-à-dire estimer les gains de productivité des entreprises imputables à la recherche, peut se faire de deux façons. La première, plus traditionnelle, utilise le nombre de brevets déposés, mais reste insuffisante car la décision de breveter une innovation varie beaucoup d’une entreprise à l’autre. La seconde, plus récente, donne une mesure complémentaire et plus satisfaisante de l’innovation en mesurant la part des produits de moins de cinq ans dans le chiffre d’affaires des entreprises. Elle a l’avantage de prendre en compte à la fois les innovations mais aussi les améliorations voire les imitations de produits. Globalement, ces deux mesures permettent d’expliquer dans des proportions comparables les gains importants de productivité dus à la recherche dans l’industrie manufacturière. Cependant, la seconde approche permet de mieux prendre en compte les effets de variables comme l’impulsion de la demande ou la dynamique propre de la technologie. Plus qualitatives, elles expliqueraient au moins autant la décision des entreprises de faire de la recherche et le montant des sommes que celles-ci sont disposées à y consacrer que leur taille, leur part de marché ou leur diversification. [eng] The return on innovation, i. e. corporate productivity gains from research, can be estimated in two ways. The first, more traditional method draws on the number of patents filed. However, it is inadequate since the decision to patent an innovation varies a great deal from one firm to the next. The second, more recent method provides a complementary and more satisfactory measurement of innovation by determining the share of products less than five years old in corporate turnovers. This has the advantage of taking into account both product innovations and improvements or imitations. On the whole, these two measurements can be used to explain substantial productivity gains due to manufacturing industry research in comparable proportions. The second approach, however, takes better account of the effects of variables such as demand stimuli and the specific technology dynamic. As they are more qualitative, they are deemed to explain at least as much a firm’s decision to carry out research and the sums that they are willing to invest therein as their size, their market share and their diversification. [spa] Medir el rendimiento de la innovación, o sea evaluar las ganancias de productividad de las empresas debidas a la investigación puede llevarse a cabo de dos maneras. Una, más tradicional, se basa sobre la cantidad de patentas depositadas, pero es todavía insuficiente ya que la decisión de patentar una innovación varía mucho según la empresa. Otra, más reciente, facilita una medición complementaria y más satisfactoria de la innovación al medir la proporción de los productos de menos de cinco años en el volumen de negocios de las empresas. Tiene la ventaja de tomar en cuenta a la vez las innovaciones, las mejoras e incluso las imitaciones de los productos. Globalmente, estas dos mediciones permiten explicar en unas proporciones idénticas las fuertes ganancias de productividad debidas a la innovación en la industria manufacturera. Sin embargo, el segundo enfoque permite considerar con más eficacia los efectos de unas variables como el impulso de la demanda o la dinámica propia de la tecnología. Siendo más cualitativas, estas variables permiten tanto como el tamaño, la cuota de mercado o la diversificación de las empresas, explicar su decisión de dedicarse a la investigación y las sumas que éstas le dedican.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruno Crépon & Emmanuel Duguet & Jacques Mairesse, 2000. "Mesurer le rendement de l'innovation," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 334(1), pages 65-78.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2000_num_334_1_7532
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2000.7532
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.3406/estat.2000.7532
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.persee.fr/doc/estat_0336-1454_2000_num_334_1_7532
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Nathalie Greenan & Emmanuel Duguet, 1997. "Le biais technologique : une analyse économétrique sur données individuelles," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 48(5), pages 1061-1089.
    2. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Applications to Poisson Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 701-720, May.
    3. Crepon, B. & Duguet, E. & Mairesse, J., 1998. "Research Investment, Innovation and Productivity: An Econometric Analysis at the Firm Level," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 98.15, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
    4. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 287-343 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. repec:adr:anecst:y:1998:i:49-50 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Crampes, Claude, 1986. "Les inconvénients d’un dépôt de brevet pour une entreprise innovatrice," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 62(4), pages 521-534, décembre.
    7. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "R&D, Patents, and Productivity," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril84-1, August.
    8. repec:adr:anecst:y:1998:i:49-50:p:17 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Crepon, B. & Duguet, E. & Kabla, I., 1995. "A Moderate Support to Schumpeterian Conjectures from Various Innovation Measures," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 95.06, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
    10. Bruno Crépon & Emmanuel Duguet, 1994. "Innovation : mesures, rendements et concurrence," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 275(1), pages 121-134.
    11. Emmanuel Duguet & Isabelle Kabla, 1998. "Appropriation Strategy and the Motivations to Use the Patent System: An Econometric Analysis at the Firm Level in French Manufacturing," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 49-50, pages 289-327.
    12. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters,in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Cohen, Wesley M. & Levin, Richard C., 1989. "Empirical studies of innovation and market structure," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 18, pages 1059-1107 Elsevier.
    15. Jean-Christophe Bussy & Catherine Carpentier & Isabelle Kabla, 1994. "Les entreprises françaises à l'heure du brevet européen," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 275(1), pages 55-70.
    16. Corinne Barlet & Emmanuel Duguet & David Encaoua & Jacqueline Pradel, 1998. "The Commercial Success of Innovations: an Econometric Analysis at the Firm Lebel in French Manufacturing," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 49-50, pages 457-478.
    17. Hausman, Jerry & Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi, 1984. "Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents-R&D Relationship," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 909-938, July.
    18. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "A Reprise of Size and R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 925-951, July.
    19. Scherer, F M, 1992. "Schumpeter and Plausible Capitalism," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1416-1433, September.
    20. Kleinknecht, Alfred, 1987. "Measuring R&D in Small Firms: How Much Are We Missing?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 253-256, December.
    21. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3, Specia), pages 783-832.
    22. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "Introduction to "R & D, Patents, and Productivity"," NBER Chapters,in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 1-20 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Khalid M. Al-Shuaibi, 2016. "A Structural Equation Model of CSR and Performance: Mediation by Innovation and Productivity," Journal of Management and Sustainability, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 6(2), pages 139-153, June.
    2. Frédérique Savignac, 2006. "The impact of financial constraints on innovation : evidence from French manufacturing firms," Post-Print halshs-00115717, HAL.
    3. Frédérique Savignac, 2006. "The impact of financial constraints on innovation : evidence from French manufacturing firms," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00115717, HAL.
    4. Emilie-Pauline Gallié & Diègo Legros, 2012. "Firms’ human capital, R&D and innovation: a study on French firms," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 581-596, October.
    5. Michele Benvenuti & Luca Casolaro & Elena Gennari, 2014. "Metrics of Innovation: Measuring the Italian Gap," Politica economica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 5-50.
    6. Hajjem, Olfa & Ayadi, Mohamed & Garrouste, Pierre, 2011. "Complementarities between organizational changes, R&D activity and technological cooperation for the French manufacturing firms," MPRA Paper 34617, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Dostie, Benoit, 2014. "Innovation, Productivity, and Training," IZA Discussion Papers 8506, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Sdiri, Hanen & Ayadi, Mohamed, 2011. "Rôle de l'internationalisation des entreprises tunisiennes de service dans la promotion de l'innovation
      [Role of the Tunisian service firms internationalization in promoting innovation]
      ," MPRA Paper 34036, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. OUNIR, Abdessamad, 2012. "Libéralisation financière et investissement des entreprises marocaines
      [Financial liberalization and investment of the Moroccan firms]
      ," MPRA Paper 71798, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2012.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2000_num_334_1_7532. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Equipe PERSEE). General contact details of provider: https://www.persee.fr/collection/estat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.