IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Education in Pakistan: Fifty Years of Neglect

Listed author(s):
  • Akhtar Hasan Khan

    (Government of Pakistan.)

Registered author(s):

    Pakistan was created in the name of Islam under the outstanding leadership of Quaid-i-Azam. The Quran placed great emphasis on education. The Quaid as quoted above also highlighted its importance for the new nation. Unfortunately, despite high and repeated rhetoric, education remained the most neglected aspect of national life during the last half century. The literacy level are low, the female literacy levels are among the lowest in the world and the lowest in the Muslim countries. The emphasis in education is still on a general and liberal type of B.A. or M.A. degree. The change towards scientific and technical education has still not taken place. The quality of education is low, the teachers are under-paid, under-trained and dispirited. The students are apathetic as they see no relationship betVveen education and higher earnings or status in the society. A few decades ago education was sought for cultural, religious and social progress. In 1960s, the pioneering work of Schultz and Becker working on the concept of investment in human capital proved that a high level of education is a necessary condition for economic growth and no country can make significant economic progress if majority of its citizens are illiterate. The rapid progress of East Asian Countries is largely attributed to their excellent system of education. Despite the exhortation of Quran and the Quaid as well as the international experience of education promoting rapid economic growth, Pakistan's planners continued to allocate insufficient resources for education, especially for primary education. Moreover, the money allocated was not effectively spent. The hostility of the feudals and the indifference of the educated elite (who educated their children in English medium schools in Pakistan and sent them abroad for higher education) are primarily responsible for the neglect of education in Pakistan. As we are on the threshold of a new millennium, we must turn towards the high road of education, knowledge, leaning, sciences and technology. We are living in an age revolution through knowledge. It is only by education at all levels, specially technical education that Pakistan can enter the privileged club of developed nations.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

    Volume (Year): 36 (1997)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 647-667

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:4:p:647-667
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000

    Phone: (92)(51)9248051
    Fax: (92)(51)9248065
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Lawrence H. Summers, 1992. "Investing in All the People," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 367-404.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:4:p:647-667. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.