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The theoretical evolution and use of the Uppsala Model of internationalization in the international business ecosystem

Author

Listed:
  • G. Tomas M. Hult

    () (Michigan State University)

  • Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

    () (Universidad EAFIT)

  • Katarina Lagerström

    () (Uppsala University)

Abstract

The Uppsala Model – typically viewed as an internationalization process model, an internationalization stages model, or a sequential internationalization model – has served as a theoretical underpinning in the international business literature since Johanson and Vahlne’s (J Int Bus Stud 8(1):23–32, 1977) article incorporated thoughts by researchers at Uppsala University in one all-encompassing model. Major updates to the model were published in 2009 and 2017 by the original authors. Our work examines what has now become the time-tested and Decade Award–winning 2009 version of the Uppsala Model relative to the original model in 1977. We also provide an outlook for international business research within the scope of the 2017 version of the model. This evaluation and dive across times into the nuances of the Uppsala Model capture aspects of the model’s theoretical and empirical power, as well as its limitations within today’s international business ecosystem. (The international business ecosystem is defined as the organisms of the business world – including stakeholders, organizations, and countries – involved in exchanges, production, business functions, and cross-border trade through both marketplace competition and cooperation.) In the process, we push the theoretical boundaries of the model and provide a unique connection to marketing thought.

Suggested Citation

  • G. Tomas M. Hult & Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez & Katarina Lagerström, 2020. "The theoretical evolution and use of the Uppsala Model of internationalization in the international business ecosystem," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 51(1), pages 38-49, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:51:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1057_s41267-019-00293-x
    DOI: 10.1057/s41267-019-00293-x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jan-Erik Vahlne & Jan Johanson, 2020. "The Uppsala model: Networks and micro-foundations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 51(1), pages 4-10, February.
    2. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 2009. "The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(9), pages 1411-1431, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Marie-Luce Kuhn & Wilma Viviers & Nisha Sewdass & Jonathan Calof, 2020. "The Business Anticipatory Ecosystem outside the “First World”: Competitive Intelligence in South Africa," Foresight and STI Governance (Foresight-Russia till No. 3/2015), National Research University Higher School of Economics, vol. 14(3), pages 72-87.

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