IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Intraday Share Price Volatility and Leveraged ETF Rebalancing


  • Pauline Shum
  • Walid Hejazi
  • Edgar Haryanto
  • Arthur Rodier


Regulators and market participants are concerned about leveraged exchange-traded funds (ETFs)’ role in driving up end-of-day volatility through hedging activities near the market’s close. Leveraged ETF providers counter that the funds are too small to make a meaningful impact on volatility. For the period surrounding the financial crisis, 2006–11, we show that end-of-day volatility was positively and statistically significantly correlated with the ratio of potential rebalancing trades to total trading volume. The impacts were not all economically significant, but largest during the most volatile days. Given the predictable pattern of leveraged ETF hedging demands, implications for predatory trading are explored.

Suggested Citation

  • Pauline Shum & Walid Hejazi & Edgar Haryanto & Arthur Rodier, 2016. "Intraday Share Price Volatility and Leveraged ETF Rebalancing," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(6), pages 2379-2409.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:revfin:v:20:y:2016:i:6:p:2379-2409.

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Honghui Chen & Gregory Noronha & Vijay Singal, 2004. "The Price Response to S&P 500 Index Additions and Deletions: Evidence of Asymmetry and a New Explanation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1901-1930, August.
    2. Wood, Robert A & McInish, Thomas H & Ord, J Keith, 1985. "An Investigation of Transactions Data for NYSE Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 723-739, July.
    3. Foster, F Douglas & Viswanathan, S, 1993. "Variations in Trading Volume, Return Volatility, and Trading Costs: Evidence on Recent Price Formation Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 187-211, March.
    4. Zhang, Lan & Mykland, Per A. & Ait-Sahalia, Yacine, 2005. "A Tale of Two Time Scales: Determining Integrated Volatility With Noisy High-Frequency Data," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 1394-1411, December.
    5. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2002. "Order imbalance, liquidity, and market returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 111-130, July.
    6. Werner, Ingrid M & Kleidon, Allan W, 1996. "U.K. and U.S. Trading of British Cross-Listed Stocks: An Intraday Analysis of Market Integration," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(2), pages 619-664.
    7. Harris, Lawrence E & Gurel, Eitan, 1986. "Price and Volume Effects Associated with Changes in the S&P 500 List: New Evidence for the Existence of Price Pressures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(4), pages 815-829, September.
    8. repec:uts:ppaper:v:67:y:2011:i:1:p:55-71 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Itzhak Ben‐David & Francesco Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi, 2018. "Do ETFs Increase Volatility?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 73(6), pages 2471-2535, December.
    10. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Diebold, Francis X. & Ebens, Heiko, 2001. "The distribution of realized stock return volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 43-76, July.
    11. Tugkan Tuzun, 2013. "Are leveraged and inverse ETFs the new portfolio insurers?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-48, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Lynch, Anthony W & Mendenhall, Richard R, 1997. "New Evidence on Stock Price Effects Associated with Changes in the S&P 500 Index," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(3), pages 351-383, July.
    13. Bruce Ian Carlin & Miguel Sousa Lobo & S. Viswanathan, 2007. "Episodic Liquidity Crises: Cooperative and Predatory Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(5), pages 2235-2274, October.
    14. Harris, Lawrence, 1986. "A transaction data study of weekly and intradaily patterns in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 99-117, May.
    15. David Lam & Bing-Xuan Lin & David Michayluk, 2011. "Demand and Supply and Their Relationship to Liquidity: Evidence from the S&P 500 Change to Free Float," Published Paper Series 2011-3, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    16. Andersen, Torben G, 1996. "Return Volatility and Trading Volume: An Information Flow Interpretation of Stochastic Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 169-204, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ivanov, Ivan T. & Lenkey, Stephen L., 2018. "Do leveraged ETFs really amplify late-day returns and volatility?," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 36-56.
    2. Lee, Kyuseok & Kim, Soo-Hyun, 2018. "Do Leveraged/Inverse Etfs Wag The Underlying Market? : Evidence From The Korean Stock Market," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 59(2), pages 83-94, December.
    3. Hurlin, Christophe & Iseli, Grégoire & Pérignon, Christophe & Yeung, Stanley, 2019. "The counterparty risk exposure of ETF investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 215-230.
    4. Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco A. Franzoni & Rabih Moussawi, 2016. "Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 16-64, Swiss Finance Institute.
    5. Pagano, Marco & Sánchez Serrano, Antonio & Zechner, Jozef, 2019. "Can ETFs contribute to systemic risk?," Report of the Advisory Scientific Committee 9, European Systemic Risk Board.
    6. Lakshithe Wagalath, 2016. "Feedback effects and endogenous risk in financial markets," Finance, Presses universitaires de Grenoble, vol. 37(2), pages 39-74.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Dobrev, Dobrislav, 2007. "No-arbitrage semi-martingale restrictions for continuous-time volatility models subject to leverage effects, jumps and i.i.d. noise: Theory and testable distributional implications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 125-180, May.
    2. Kappou, Konstantina & Brooks, Chris & Ward, Charles, 2010. "The S&P500 index effect reconsidered: Evidence from overnight and intraday stock price performance and volume," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 116-126, January.
    3. Gaurav Raizada & Vartika Srivastava & S. V. D. Nageswara Rao, 2020. "Shall One Sit “Longer” for a Free Lunch? Impact of Trading Durations on the Realized Variances and Volatility Spillovers," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 18(1), pages 1-28, March.
    4. Chang, Shao-Chi & Chen, Sheng-Syan & Chou, Robin K. & Lin, Yueh-Hsiang, 2008. "Weather and intraday patterns in stock returns and trading activity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1754-1766, September.
    5. Kaplanski, Guy & Levy, Haim, 2015. "Trading breaks and asymmetric information: The option markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 390-404.
    6. Nawal Seif Kassim & Roslily Ramlee & Salina Kassim, 2017. "Impact of Inclusion into and Exclusion from the Shariah Index on a Stock Price and Trading Volume: An Event Study Approach," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 40-51.
    7. Köksal, Bülent, 2012. "An Analysis of Intraday Patterns and Liquidity on the Istanbul Stock Exchange," MPRA Paper 35968, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Tim Bollerslev & Jia Li & Yuan Xue, 2018. "Volume, Volatility, and Public News Announcements," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(4), pages 2005-2041.
    9. Azevedo, Alcino & Karim, Mohamad & Gregoriou, Andros & Rhodes, Mark, 2014. "Stock price and volume effects associated with changes in the composition of the FTSE Bursa Malaysian KLCI," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 20-35.
    10. Hacıbedel, Burcu, 2014. "Does investor recognition matter for asset pricing?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 1-20.
    11. Kim Christensen & Ulrich Hounyo & Mark Podolskij, 2017. "Is the diurnal pattern sufficient to explain the intraday variation in volatility? A nonparametric assessment," CREATES Research Papers 2017-30, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    12. Julien Chevallier & Benoît Sévi, 2011. "On the realized volatility of the ECX CO 2 emissions 2008 futures contract: distribution, dynamics and forecasting," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-29, February.
    13. Sharad Asthana & Rachana Kalelkar, 2011. "The Market For Audit Services And S&P 500 Index Clients," Working Papers 0022, College of Business, University of Texas at San Antonio.
    14. Hu, Conghui & Liu, Yu-Jane & Zhu, Ning, 2019. "De-Leverage and illiquidity contagion," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 1-18.
    15. Ken L. Bechmann, 2004. "Price and Volume Effects Associated with Changes in the Danish Blue-Chip Index: The KFX Index," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 8(1-2), pages 3-34, March-Jun.
    16. Afego, Pyemo N., 2017. "Effects of changes in stock index compositions: A literature survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 228-239.
    17. Kenechukwu E. Anadu & Mathias S. Kruttli & Patrick E. McCabe & Emilio Osambela, 2018. "The Shift from Active to Passive Investing : Potential Risks to Financial Stability?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2018-060r1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised 29 Jun 2020.
    18. Schnitzler, Jan, 2018. "S&P 500 inclusions and stock supply," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 341-356.
    19. Torben G. Anderson & Tim Bollerslev & Ashish Das, 1998. "Testing for Market Microstructure Effects in Intraday Volatility: A Reassessment of the Tokyo FX Experiment," NBER Working Papers 6666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Sirimon Treepongkaruna & Robert Brooks & Stephen Gray, 2012. "Do trading hours affect volatility links in the foreign exchange market?," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 37(1), pages 7-27, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:revfin:v:20:y:2016:i:6:p:2379-2409.. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Oxford University Press to update the entry or send us the correct email address or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.