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Market structures and systemic risks of exchange-traded funds


  • Srichander Ramaswamy


Crisis experience has shown that as the financial intermediation chain lengthens, it becomes complicated to assess the risks of financial products due to a lack of transparency as to how risks are managed at different levels of the intermediation chain. Exchange-traded funds, which have become popular among investors seeking exposure to a diversified portfolio of assets, share this characteristic, especially when their returns are replicated using derivative products. As the volume of such products grows, such replication strategies can lead to a build-up of systemic risks in the financial system. This article examines the operational frameworks of exchange-traded funds and identifies potential channels through which risks to financial stability can materialise.

Suggested Citation

  • Srichander Ramaswamy, 2011. "Market structures and systemic risks of exchange-traded funds," BIS Working Papers 343, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:343

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Naohiko Baba & Robert N McCauley & Srichander Ramaswamy, 2009. "US dollar money market funds and non-US banks," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The World of ETFs
      by Steve Cecchetti and Kim Schoenholtz in Money, Banking and Financial Markets on 2016-08-01 16:56:32


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    Cited by:

    1. Shank, Corey A. & Vianna, Andre C., 2016. "Are US-Dollar-Hedged-ETF investors aggressive on exchange rates? A panel VAR approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 430-438.
    2. Cheng, Si & Massa, Massimo & Zhang, Hong, 2017. "The Unexpected Activeness of Passive Investors: A World-Wide Analysis of ETFs," CEPR Discussion Papers 11988, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Marszk, Adam & Lechman, Ewa, 2018. "Tracing financial innovation diffusion and substitution trajectories. Recent evidence on exchange-traded funds in Japan and South Korea," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 51-71.
    4. Kim, Jinbeom & Leung, Tim, 2016. "Pricing derivatives with counterparty risk and collateralization: A fixed point approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 249(2), pages 525-539.
    5. Martin Lettau & Ananth Madhavan, 2018. "Exchange-Traded Funds 101 for Economists," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 32(1), pages 135-154, Winter.
    6. Szabolcs Szikszai & Tamas Badics, 2014. "Enhanced Funds Seeking Higher Returns," Working papers wpaper43, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    7. Gregor Dorfleitner & Anna Gerl & Johannes Gerer, 2018. "The pricing efficiency of exchange-traded commodities," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 255-284, January.
    8. Adam Marszk, 2016. "Impact of Innovative Financial Products on Financial Systems: Exchange Traded Products and the Polish Financial System," International Economics, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, issue 14, pages 114-132, June.
    9. Adam Marszk & Ewa Lechman & Harleen Kaur, 2017. "Financial Markets Diffusion Patterns. The Case Of Mexican Investment Funds," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 12(1), pages 83-100, March.
    10. Hurlin, Christophe & Iseli, Grégoire & Pérignon, Christophe & Yeung, Stanley, 2019. "The counterparty risk exposure of ETF investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 215-230.
    11. Lechman, Ewa & Marszk, Adam, 2015. "ICT technologies and financial innovations: The case of exchange traded funds in Brazil, Japan, Mexico, South Korea and the United States," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 355-376.
    12. Chacko, George & Das, Sanjiv & Fan, Rong, 2016. "An index-based measure of liquidity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 162-178.
    13. Lopez, Claude & Markwardt, Donald & Savard, Keith, 2016. "The Asset Management Industry and Systemic Risk: Is There a Connection?," MPRA Paper 72266, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Grosche, Stephanie, 2012. "Limitations of Granger Causality Analysis to assess the price effects from the financialization of agricultural commodity markets under bounded rationality," Discussion Papers 121868, University of Bonn, Institute for Food and Resource Economics.
    15. Bank for International Settlements, 2016. "Regulatory change and monetary policy," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 55, June.
    16. Utpal Bhattacharya & Benjamin Loos & Steffen Meyer & Andreas Hackethal, 2017. "Abusing ETFs," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(3), pages 1217-1250.
    17. Mikica Drenovak & Branko Urošević & Ranko Jelic, 2014. "European Bond ETFs: Tracking Errors and the Sovereign Debt Crisis," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 20(5), pages 958-994, November.

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    Mutual funds; total return swaps; securities lending; systemic risk;

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