Turning Workers into Savers? Incentives, Liquidity, and Choice in 401(k) Plan Design
We use data on five hundred 401(k) pension plans to evaluate how employer matching incentives influence retirement saving. Company matches prove to have a small effect on participation and saving rates; only one in ten non–highly compensated workers joins the plan because of employer match incentives, while one–quarter fails to join even though the match offers real return premiums of up to five percent. We find that liquidity and investment constraints in 401(k) plans have negligible effects on plan saving patterns. Our research underscores the importance of default strategies to bolster pension saving including the automatic enrollment approach outlined in the 2006 Pension Protection Act and non–elective employer contributions.
Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 725 15th St. NW #600. Washington, D.C. 20005-2109|
Fax: (202) 737-7308
Web page: http://www.ntanet.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Engelhardt, Gary V. & Kumar, Anil, 2007.
"Employer matching and 401(k) saving: Evidence from the health and retirement study,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 91(10), pages 1920-1943, November.
- Gary V. Engelhardt & Anil Kumar, 2007. "Employer matching and 401(k) saving: Evidence from the health and retirement study," NBER Chapters, in: Trans-Atlantic Public Economics Seminar (TAPES), Public Policy and Retirement, pages 1920-1943 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary V. Engelhardt & Anil Kumar, 2006. "Employer Matching and 401(k) Saving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study," DNB Working Papers 079, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Gary V. Engelhardt & Anil Kumar, 2004. "Employer Matching and 401(k) Saving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College 2004-18, Center for Retirement Research.
- Gary V. Engelhardt & Anil Kumar, 2006. "Employer Matching and 401(k) Saving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study," NBER Working Papers 12447, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Choi, James J. & Laibson, David & Madrian, Brigitte C., 2004.
"Plan Design and 401(k) Savings Outcomes,"
National Tax Journal,
National Tax Association, vol. 57(2), pages 275-98, June.
- Cunningham, Christopher R. & Engelhardt, Gary V., 2002. "Federal Tax Policy, Employer Matching, and 401(k) Saving: Evidence from HRS W-2 Records," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 55(3), pages 617-45, September.
- Papke, Leslie E. & Poterba, James M., 1995. "Survey evidence on employer match rates and employee saving behavior in 401(k) plans," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 313-317, September.
- William E. Even & David A. Macpherson, 2004. "Determinants and Effects of Employer Matching Contributions in 401(k) Plans," Labor and Demography 0405001, EconWPA.
- Julie Agnew & Pierluigi Balduzzi & Annika Sundén, 2003. "Portfolio Choice and Trading in a Large 401(k) Plan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 193-215, March.
- James M. Poterba & Steven F. Venti, 2004.
"The Transition to Personal Accounts and Increasing Retirement Wealth: Macro- and Microevidence,"
in: Perspectives on the Economics of Aging, pages 17-80
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James M. Poterba & Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 2001. "The Transition to Personal Accounts and Increasing Retirement Wealth: Macro and Micro Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8610, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Karen M. Pence, 2002. "Nature or nurture: why do 401(k) participants save differently than other workers?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-33, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Leslie E. Papke, 1992.
"Participation in and Contributions to 401(k) Pension Plans: Evidence om Plan Data,"
NBER Working Papers
4199, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Leslie E. Papke, 1995. "Participation in and Contributions to 401(k) Pension Plans: Evidence from Plan Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 311-325.
- Gur Huberman & Sheena Iyengar & Wei Jiang, 2007. "Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Determinants of Participation and Contributions Rates," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 31(1), pages 1-32, February.
- James J. Choi & David Laibson & Brigitte C. Madrian & Andrew Metrick, 2004. "Saving or Retirement on the Path of Least Resistance," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000000606, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Brigitte C. Madrian & Dennis F. Shea, 2001. "The Power of Suggestion: Inertia in 401(k) Participation and Savings Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1149-1187.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ntj:journl:v:60:y:2007:i:3:p:469-89. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Charmaine Wright)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.