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Competition Through Innovation: ATMs in Italian Banks

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  • Donald D. Hester
  • Giorgio Calcagnini
  • Riccardo De Bonis

Abstract

This paper reports results from a study of location, ownership, and acquisitions of automated teller machines (ATMs) by a sample of large Italian banks between 1991 and 1995. The sample banks had 85% of Italian banking assets. Data are collected at the provincial level for each bank. The underlying model is recursive; a bank is presumed to make branching decisions (analyzed in a separate paper) and then, conditional on branching decisions, decisions about ATMs. Several sets of cross-sectional data are studied using OLS and Tobit models yielding the following results: 1) The logarithm of ATMs in a province is related positively to the logarithms of interest-bearing deposits and GDP and negatively to the logarithm of population, as was predicted from a variation of Baumol's transactions demand for cash model; 2) The number of a bank's ATMs in a province is related positively to the numbers of its branches and deposit accounts, a province's per capita GDP, the bank's deposits, and the bank's number of employees per branch in the province and negatively to the bank's share of a province's branches; 3) Changes in a bank's ATMs in a province are positively related to changes in the number of its branches and those of competitors; and 4) Concentration indices of ATMs, branches, deposits, and loans decreased at the provincial level between 1991 and 1995.

Suggested Citation

  • Donald D. Hester & Giorgio Calcagnini & Riccardo De Bonis, 2001. "Competition Through Innovation: ATMs in Italian Banks," Rivista italiana degli economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 3, pages 359-382.
  • Handle: RePEc:mul:jqat1f:doi:10.1427/3699:y:2001:i:3:p:359-382
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    1. Paul S. Calem & Leonard I. Nakamura, 1998. "Branch Banking And The Geography Of Bank Pricing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 600-610, November.
    2. Garth Saloner & Andrea Shepard, 1995. "Adoption of Technologies with Network Effects: An Empirical Examination of the Adoption of Teller Machines," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 479-501, Autumn.
    3. Calcagnini,G. & Bonis,R. de & Hester,D.D., 1999. "Determinants of bank branche expension in Italy," Working papers 32, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
    4. Matutes, Carmen & Padilla, A. Jorge, 1994. "Shared ATM networks and banking competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 1113-1138, May.
    5. William J. Baumol, 1952. "The Transactions Demand for Cash: An Inventory Theoretic Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(4), pages 545-556.
    6. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 822-841, August.
    7. Timothy H. Hannan & John M. McDowell, 1984. "The Determinants of Technology Adoption: The Case of the Banking Firm," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(3), pages 328-335, Autumn.
    8. E. J. Working, 1927. "What Do Statistical "Demand Curves" Show?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(2), pages 212-235.
    9. James J. McAndrews, 1991. "The evolution of shared ATM networks," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue May, pages 3-16.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kim Huynh & Philipp Schmidt-Dengler & Gregor W. Smith & Angelika Welte, 2017. "Adoption Costs of Financial Innovation: Evidence from Italian ATM Cards," Staff Working Papers 17-8, Bank of Canada.
    2. Francesco Columba, 2003. "Transaction Technology Innovation and Demand for Overnight Deposits in Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 468, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    3. Calcagnini,G. & Bonis,R. de & Hester,D.D., 1999. "Determinants of bank branche expension in Italy," Working papers 32, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
    4. Snellman, Heli, 2006. "Automated teller machine network market structure and cash usage," Scientific Monographs, Bank of Finland, number 2006_038, November.
    5. Nicoletta Corrocher, 2002. "Does Internet banking substitute traditional banking? Empirical evidence from Italy," KITeS Working Papers 134, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2002.
    6. Kenneth P. Brevoort & John D. Wolken, 2008. "Does distance matter in banking?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    7. Corrocher, Nicoletta, 2006. "Internet adoption in Italian banks: An empirical investigation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 533-544, May.
    8. Lorenzo Ciari & Riccardo De Bonis, 2011. "Entry decisions after deregulation: the role of incumbents' market power," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 50, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.

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