IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/lje/journl/v19y2014i2p27-70.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Impact of Corporate Governance and Ownership Structure on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Listed Companies in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Kamran

    () (Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan.)

  • Attaullah Shah

    () (Assistant Professor of Finance, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan.)

Abstract

This study analyzes the impact of corporate governance and ownership structure on earnings management for a sample of 372 firms listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange over the period 2003–10. We estimate discretionary accruals using four well-known models: Jones (1991); Dechow, Sloan, and Sweeney (1995); Kasznik (1999); and Kothari, Leone, and Wasley (2005). The results indicate that discretionary accruals increase monotonically with the ownership percentage of a firm’s directors, their spouses, children, and other family members. This supports the view that managers who are more entrenched in a firm can more easily influence corporate decisions and accounting figures in a way that may serve their interests. This finding is consistent with prior research evidence on the role of dominant directors in expropriating external minority shareholders in Pakistan. Further, our results indicate that institutional investors play a significant role in constraining earnings management practices. We do not find any evidence that CEO duality, the size of the auditing firm, the number of members on the board of directors, and ownership concentration influence discretionary accruals. Among the control variables, we find that firms that are more profitable, are growing, or have higher leverage actively manage their earnings, while earnings management decreases with the age of the firm. The results are robust to several alternative specifications.

Suggested Citation

  • Kamran & Attaullah Shah, 2014. "The Impact of Corporate Governance and Ownership Structure on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Listed Companies in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 19(2), pages 27-70, July-Dec.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:19:y:2014:i:2:p:27-70
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://121.52.153.179/JOURNAL/Volume%2019-2/02%20Kamran%20and%20Shah.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Butler, Marty & Leone, Andrew J. & Willenborg, Michael, 2004. "An empirical analysis of auditor reporting and its association with abnormal accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 139-165, June.
    2. repec:hrv:faseco:30728046 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Chung-Hua Shen & Hsiang-Lin Chih, 2007. "Earnings Management and Corporate Governance in Asia's Emerging Markets," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(5), pages 999-1021, September.
    4. Andreas Charitou & Neophytos Lambertides & Lenos Trigeorgis, 2007. "Earnings Behaviour of Financially Distressed Firms: The Role of Institutional Ownership," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 43(3), pages 271-296, September.
    5. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    6. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    7. Sweeney, Amy Patricia, 1994. "Debt-covenant violations and managers' accounting responses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 281-308, May.
    8. Attiya Y. Javid & Robina Iqbal, 2008. "Ownership Concentration, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 643-659.
    9. Dechow, Patricia M., 1994. "Accounting earnings and cash flows as measures of firm performance : The role of accounting accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 3-42, July.
    10. Badolato, Patrick G. & Donelson, Dain C. & Ege, Matthew, 2014. "Audit committee financial expertise and earnings management: The role of status," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 208-230.
    11. Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
    12. Fan, Joseph P. H. & Wong, T. J., 2002. "Corporate ownership structure and the informativeness of accounting earnings in East Asia," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 401-425, August.
    13. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1994. "Efficient and Inefficient Sales of Corporate Control," NBER Working Papers 4788, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-783, June.
    15. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-1177, December.
    16. Fahad Abdullah & Attaullah Shah & Safi Ullah Khan, 2012. "Firm Performance and the Nature of Agency Problems in Insiders-controlled Firms: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(4), pages 161-183.
    17. repec:bla:joares:v:37:y:1999:i:1:p:57-81 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Kothari, S.P. & Leone, Andrew J. & Wasley, Charles E., 2005. "Performance matched discretionary accrual measures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 163-197, February.
    19. Sumit K. Majumdar & Anuradha Nagarajan, 1997. "The Impact of Changing Stock Ownership Patterns in the United States : Theoretical Implications and Some Evidence," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 82(1), pages 39-54.
    20. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1985. "Credit Markets and the Control of Capital," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(2), pages 133-152, May.
    21. Grace C.-M. Hsu & Ping-Sheng Koh, 2005. "Does the Presence of Institutional Investors Influence Accruals Management? Evidence from Australia," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(6), pages 809-823, November.
    22. Liu, Qiao & Lu, Zhou (Joe), 2007. "Corporate governance and earnings management in the Chinese listed companies: A tunneling perspective," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 881-906, December.
    23. Bhide, Amar, 1993. "The hidden costs of stock market liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 31-51, August.
    24. Chung, Richard & Firth, Michael & Kim, Jeong-Bon, 2002. "Institutional monitoring and opportunistic earnings management," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 29-48, January.
    25. Bartov, Eli & Gul, Ferdinand A. & Tsui, J.S.L.Judy S. L., 2000. "Discretionary-accruals models and audit qualifications," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 421-452, December.
    26. Michael S. Rozeff, 1982. "Growth, Beta And Agency Costs As Determinants Of Dividend Payout Ratios," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 5(3), pages 249-259, September.
    27. DeAngelo, Linda Elizabeth, 1981. "Auditor size and audit quality," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 183-199, December.
    28. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1994. "Efficient and Inefficient Sales of Corporate Control," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 957-993.
    29. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    30. Subramanyam, K. R., 1996. "The pricing of discretionary accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 249-281, October.
    31. Mike W. Peng & Shujun Zhang & Xinchun Li, 2007. "CEO Duality and Firm Performance during China's Institutional Transitions," Management and Organization Review, The International Association for Chinese Management Research, vol. 3(2), pages 205-225, July.
    32. Jong-Hag Choi & Kyu-An Jeon & Jong-Il Park, 2004. "The role of audit committees in decreasing earnings management: Korean evidence," International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 1(1), pages 37-60.
    33. Fama, Eugene F, 1980. "Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(2), pages 288-307, April.
    34. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
    35. Dechun Wang, 2006. "Founding Family Ownership and Earnings Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 619-656, June.
    36. R.M. Haniffa & T. E. Cooke, 2002. "Culture, Corporate Governance and Disclosure in Malaysian Corporations," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 38(3), pages 317-349, October.
    37. Fivos V. Bekiris & Leonidas C. Doukakis, 2011. "Corporate Governance and Accruals Earnings Management," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32, pages 439-456, October.
    38. Peng, Mike W. & Zhang, Shujun & Li, Xinchun, 2007. "CEO Duality and Firm Performance during China's Institutional Transitions," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 205-225, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:1:p:248-:d:195308 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:taf:applec:v:50:y:2018:i:18:p:2012-2027 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:gei:jnlfer:v:3:y:2018:i:2:p:51-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Muhammad Fayyaz Sheikh & Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, 2016. "Executive Compensation, Firm Performance And Corporate Governance In An Emerging Economy," Proceedings of Business and Management Conferences 4406477, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    5. repec:gam:jijfss:v:6:y:2018:i:2:p:58-:d:151459 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate governance; earnings management; ownership structure; discretionary accruals; KSE; Pakistan.;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • M4 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:19:y:2014:i:2:p:27-70. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shahid Salahuddin). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/lsecopk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.