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Co-producing with consumers: how varying levels of control and co-production impact affect


  • Jennifer Stevens

    (Mississippi State University)

  • Carol L. Esmark

    () (Mississippi State University)

  • Stephanie M. Noble

    (University of Tennessee)

  • Na Young Lee

    (University of Tennessee)


Abstract As companies continue to utilize co-production (customer participation in product or service creation) strategies with consumers, academic researchers have expanded their study on issues related to co-production. However, research has been scant on the issue of control in such situations. The underlying belief in increasing customer participation and involvement is it increases customers’ perceived control, thereby enhancing their experience and outcomes; this belief creates the necessity for further examination of control in co-production environments. This study examines consumers’ affective responses to differing levels of three types of control (cognitive, behavioral, and decisional) in low and high co-production conditions. Using two experimental contexts and one survey study, the results show increasing cognitive control will increase affect when co-production is low. Behavioral control can negatively or positively influence affect depending on specific situational contexts and perceptions of customization in low co-production conditions. Lastly, decisional control is found to be an important positive contributor to affect regardless of co-production level. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Jennifer Stevens & Carol L. Esmark & Stephanie M. Noble & Na Young Lee, 2017. "Co-producing with consumers: how varying levels of control and co-production impact affect," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-187, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:mktlet:v:28:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11002-016-9413-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s11002-016-9413-2

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hui, Michael K & Bateson, John E G, 1991. " Perceived Control and the Effects of Crowding and Consumer Choice on the Service Experience," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 174-184, September.
    2. James A. Fitzsimmons, 1985. "Consumer Participation and Productivity in Service Operations," Interfaces, INFORMS, vol. 15(3), pages 60-67, June.
    3. Elizabeth Gelfand Miller & Barbara E. Kahn & Mary Frances Luce, 2008. "Consumer Wait Management Strategies for Negative Service Events: A Coping Approach," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(5), pages 635-648, August.
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