Motherhood and Earnings: Wage Variability by Major Occupational Category and Earnings Level
Prior research has indicated that women with children earn less than their childless counterparts. In addition, recent research has found that the motherhood wage penalty may be most severe for low-income earners. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979), we test two hypotheses. First, are there occupational differences in the motherhood wage penalty? Second, are there occupational differences in the relative wage penalty experienced by low and high wage mothers? Our results indicated that mothers in sales occupations are penalized at a significantly higher rate than mothers in non-sales occupations, while mothers in blue-collar occupations were penalized the least. Furthermore, the wage cost of motherhood was greatest amongst the highest earners in sales occupations. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David Kalist, 2008. "Does Motherhood Affect Productivity, Relative Performance, and Earnings?," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 219-235, September.
- Jean Wallace, 2008. "Parenthood and Commitment to the Legal Profession: Are Mothers Less Committed than Fathers?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 478-495, September.
- Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
- Zia Wadud & Daniel J. Graham & Robert B. Noland, 2010. "Gasoline Demand with Heterogeneity in Household Responses," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 47-74.
- Marisa Young & Jean Wallace, 2009. "Family Responsibilities, Productivity, and Earnings: A Study of Gender Differences Among Canadian Lawyers," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 305-319, September.
- David Maume, 2011. "Reconsidering the Temporal Increase in Fathers’ Time with Children," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 411-423, September.
- Alan Manning & Farzad Saidi, 2008.
"Understanding the Gender Pay Gap: What's Competition Got to Do with It?,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0898, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alan Manning & Farzad Saidi, 2010. "Understanding the Gender Pay Gap: What's Competition Got to Do with it?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(4), pages 681-698, July.
- Alan Manning & Farzad Saidi, 2010. "Understanding the Gender Pay Gap: What's Competition Got to Do with It?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(4), pages 681-698, July.
- Alan Manning & Farzad Saidi, 2008. "Understanding the gender pay gap: what's competition got to do with it?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28510, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Waldfogel, Jane, 1998. "The Family Gap for Young Women in the United States and Britain: Can Maternity Leave Make a Difference?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(3), pages 505-45, July.
- Elizabeth Ty Wilde & Lily Batchelder & David T. Ellwood, 2010. "The Mommy Track Divides: The Impact of Childbearing on Wages of Women of Differing Skill Levels," NBER Working Papers 16582, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Deborah J. Anderson & Melissa Binder & Kate Krause, 2003. "The motherhood wage penalty revisited: experience, heterogeneity, work effort, and work-schedule flexibility," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(2), pages 273-294, January.
- Heather Boushey, 2008. "Family Friendly Policies: Helping Mothers Make Ends Meet," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 66(1), pages 51-70.
- Wendy Sigle-Rushton & Jane Waldfogel, 2007. "Motherhood and women's earnings in Anglo-American, Continental European, and Nordic Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 55-91.
- Kostiuk, Peter F, 1990. "Compensating Differentials for Shift Work," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1054-75, October.
- Nan Astone & Jacinda Dariotis & Freya Sonenstein & Joseph Pleck & Kathryn Hynes, 2010. "Men’s Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 3-13, March.
- Ana Moro-Egido, 2012. "Changing Trends of Mothers’ Active and Passive Childcare Times," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 11-23, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jfamec:v:34:y:2013:i:2:p:224-234. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.