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The Impacts of Promotions/Marketing, Scheduling, and Economic Factors on Total Gross Revenues for Minor League Baseball Teams


  • Richard Cebula


  • Christopher Coombs
  • Luther Lawson
  • Maggie Foley


The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the key marketing and scheduling determinants of game attendance at minor league baseball games. Identification of such marketing and scheduling factors can provide the management of minor league teams in similar environments with information to more efficiently pursue the goal of game attendance maximization. To ensure greater comparability of data between teams and hence relevance of results, this study focuses upon a single grouping of teams, the Carolina League, and a single minor league baseball season, 2006. The Carolina League consists of eight teams serving eight metropolitan areas: Lynchburg City, VA; Winston-Salem, NC; Wilmington, DE; Salem City, VA; Myrtle Beach, SC; Prince William County, VA; Lenoir City, NC; and Frederick County, MD. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Richard Cebula & Christopher Coombs & Luther Lawson & Maggie Foley, 2013. "The Impacts of Promotions/Marketing, Scheduling, and Economic Factors on Total Gross Revenues for Minor League Baseball Teams," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(3), pages 249-257, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:3:p:249-257:10.1007/s11294-013-9417-0
    DOI: 10.1007/s11294-013-9417-0

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. John D. Burger & Stephen J. K. Walters, 2003. "Market Size, Pay, and Performance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 4(2), pages 108-125, May.
    2. Richard Cebula & Michael Toma & Jay Carmichael, 2009. "Attendance and promotions in minor league baseball: the Carolina League," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(25), pages 3209-3214.
    3. Paul W. Grimes & George A. Chressanthis, 1994. "Alumni Contributions to Academics," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 27-40, January.
    4. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    5. Zulal Denaux & David Denaux & Yeliz Yalcin, 2011. "Factors Affecting Attendance of Major League Baseball: Revisited," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 39(2), pages 117-127, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jim Downey & Joseph McGarrity, 2015. "Pick off Throws, Stolen Bases, and Southpaws: A Comparative Static Analysis of a Mixed Strategy Game," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 43(3), pages 319-335, September.

    More about this item


    Team revenues; Minor league baseball; Marketing; Scheduling; Economic factors; D12; L25; L29;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L29 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Other


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