A panel data analysis of the impacts of regional economic factors, marketing and promotions, and team performance on minor league baseball attendance
Using panel data for the period 2007–2011, this study seeks to identify key economic, promotions, team performance, and other determinants of attendance at minor league baseball games in the Carolina League, which consists of teams from eight metropolitan areas. The PLS, Fixed-Effects estimations identify several promotions that successfully attract fans. These include fireworks displays and both high-value and low-value merchandise promotions, food and drink specials, family/group general admission ticket discounts, and beer discounts. Furthermore, those venues with higher per capita incomes and larger populations tend to have higher attendance levels. There is evidence that higher average ticket prices reduce attendance. There also is evidence that team performance in the form of winning and greater total runs scored per game attracts fans: teams with better win–loss records have higher attendance, as do home teams that play in higher scoring games. There is evidence that home teams committing more fielding errors experience a modest decline in attendance. Attendance appears to be higher on the Memorial Day, July 4, and Labor Day weekends. Finally, attendance is sensitive to scheduling. Games scheduled for Fridays and Saturdays and during July have much higher attendance, whereas games on Mondays and Tuesdays have much lower attendance. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 51 (2013)
Issue (Month): 3 (December)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00168/index.htm|
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://link.springer.de/orders.htm|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John L. Solow & Anthony C. Krautmann, 2007. "Leveling the Playing Field or Just Lowering Salaries? The Effects of Redistribution in Baseball," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 947–958, April.
- Berna Demiralp & Christopher Colburn & James Koch, 2012. "The effects of age, experience and managers upon baseball performance," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 481-498, April.
- Scully, Gerald W, 1974. "Pay and Performance in Major League Baseball," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 915-30, December.
- Zulal Denaux & David Denaux & Yeliz Yalcin, 2011. "Factors Affecting Attendance of Major League Baseball: Revisited," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 39(2), pages 117-127, June.
- El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-19, Nov.-Dec..
- Seth R. Gitter & Thomas A. Rhoads, 2010. "Determinants of Minor League Baseball Attendance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 11(6), pages 614-628, December.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Rodney Paul & Andrew Weinbach, 2011. "Determinants of Attendance in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League: Role of Winning, Scoring, and Fighting," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 39(3), pages 303-311, September.
- Richard Cebula & Michael Toma & Jay Carmichael, 2009. "Attendance and promotions in minor league baseball: the Carolina League," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(25), pages 3209-3214.
- Hausman, Jerry A, 1978.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
- Lorna Gifis & Paul Sommers, 2006. "Promotions and Attendance in Minor League Baseball," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 34(4), pages 513-514, December.
- Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-75, June.
- Rodney Fort & James Quirk, 1995. "Cross-subsidization, Incentives, and Outcomes in Professional Team Sports Leagues," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 1265-1299, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:anresc:v:51:y:2013:i:3:p:695-710. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn)or (Christopher F Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.