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A panel data analysis of the impacts of regional economic factors, marketing and promotions, and team performance on minor league baseball attendance

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  • Richard Cebula

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Abstract

Using panel data for the period 2007–2011, this study seeks to identify key economic, promotions, team performance, and other determinants of attendance at minor league baseball games in the Carolina League, which consists of teams from eight metropolitan areas. The PLS, Fixed-Effects estimations identify several promotions that successfully attract fans. These include fireworks displays and both high-value and low-value merchandise promotions, food and drink specials, family/group general admission ticket discounts, and beer discounts. Furthermore, those venues with higher per capita incomes and larger populations tend to have higher attendance levels. There is evidence that higher average ticket prices reduce attendance. There also is evidence that team performance in the form of winning and greater total runs scored per game attracts fans: teams with better win–loss records have higher attendance, as do home teams that play in higher scoring games. There is evidence that home teams committing more fielding errors experience a modest decline in attendance. Attendance appears to be higher on the Memorial Day, July 4, and Labor Day weekends. Finally, attendance is sensitive to scheduling. Games scheduled for Fridays and Saturdays and during July have much higher attendance, whereas games on Mondays and Tuesdays have much lower attendance. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Richard Cebula, 2013. "A panel data analysis of the impacts of regional economic factors, marketing and promotions, and team performance on minor league baseball attendance," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(3), pages 695-710, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:anresc:v:51:y:2013:i:3:p:695-710
    DOI: 10.1007/s00168-013-0558-0
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Scully, Gerald W, 1974. "Pay and Performance in Major League Baseball," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 915-930, December.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    R11; R20; M20; M21; M31;

    JEL classification:

    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
    • M20 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - General
    • M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics
    • M31 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Marketing

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