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Factors Affecting Attendance of Major League Baseball: Revisited


  • Zulal Denaux


  • David Denaux


  • Yeliz Yalcin



Many studies have been conducted analyzing factors affecting the demand for Major League Baseball (MLB) games. This paper revisits the factors affecting the long-run demand for attendance, employing an unbalanced panel technique for all home games played over the period from 1979 to 2004 seasons for the 12 non-expansion, non-adjustment teams from MLB. Combining both teams and every home game played during 1979–2004 seasons, dimensions provide better understanding of long-run demand for attendance. The study finds that time factors, fan interest, city characteristics, team’s performance, and fan’s attendance behavior have strong influences on the game attendance. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 2011

Suggested Citation

  • Zulal Denaux & David Denaux & Yeliz Yalcin, 2011. "Factors Affecting Attendance of Major League Baseball: Revisited," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 39(2), pages 117-127, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:atlecj:v:39:y:2011:i:2:p:117-127
    DOI: 10.1007/s11293-011-9274-2

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Martin B. Schmidt & David J. Berri, 2001. "Competitive Balance and Attendance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 2(2), pages 145-167, May.
    2. Timothy Hylan & Maureen Lage & Michael Treglia, 1997. "Institutional change and invariance of behaviour in Major League Baseball," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(5), pages 311-314.
    3. Daniel, Rascher, 1999. "A Test of the Optimal Positive Production Network Externality in Major League Baseball," MPRA Paper 25832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Michael C. Davis, 2008. "The Interaction between Baseball Attendance and Winning Percentage: A VAR Analysis," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 3(1), pages 58-73, February.
    5. Craig A. Depken II, 2000. "Fan Loyalty and Stadium Funding in Professional Baseball," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 1(2), pages 124-138, May.
    6. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    7. John J. Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2000. "The Economics of Sports Facilities and Their Communities," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 95-114, Summer.
    8. Jason Winfree & Jill McCluskey & Ron Mittelhammer & Rodney Fort, 2004. "Location and attendance in major league baseball," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(19), pages 2117-2124.
    9. George Hondroyiannis, 2010. "Fertility Determinants and Economic Uncertainty: An Assessment Using European Panel Data," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 33-50, March.
    10. Leo Kahane & Stephen Shmanske, 1997. "Team roster turnover and attendance in major league baseball," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 425-431.
    11. James W. Meehan Jr. & Randy A. Nelson & Thomas V. Richardson, 2007. "Competitive Balance and Game Attendance in Major League Baseball," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 8(6), pages 563-580, December.
    12. Robert J. Lemke & Matthew Leonard & Kelebogile Tlhokwane, 2010. "Estimating Attendance at Major League Baseball Games for the 2007 Season," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 11(3), pages 316-348, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard Cebula & Christopher Coombs & Luther Lawson & Maggie Foley, 2013. "The Impacts of Promotions/Marketing, Scheduling, and Economic Factors on Total Gross Revenues for Minor League Baseball Teams," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(3), pages 249-257, August.
    2. Richard Cebula, 2013. "A panel data analysis of the impacts of regional economic factors, marketing and promotions, and team performance on minor league baseball attendance," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(3), pages 695-710, December.
    3. repec:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:3:p:249-257 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Long-run demand attendance; Major League Baseball; Panel estimation; L83; C23;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models


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