IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/sae/amerec/v36y1992i2p72-80.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Demand for Major League Baseball: A Test of the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis

Author

Listed:
  • Glenn Knowles
  • Keith Sherony
  • Mike Haupert

Abstract

The relationship between attendance at major league baseball games and the uncertainty of the outcome of each game is examined. We use an a priori measure of uncertainty in estimating the attendance equation. The variable is developed from the betting lines for individual games and measures the probability of a home team victory during the 1988 major league baseball season. The results indicate that uncertainty of outcome is a significant determinant of attendance for major league baseball. In addition, the results are used to determine the probability of a home team victory at which attendance will be maximized.

Suggested Citation

  • Glenn Knowles & Keith Sherony & Mike Haupert, 1992. "The Demand for Major League Baseball: A Test of the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis," The American Economist, Sage Publications, vol. 36(2), pages 72-80, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:amerec:v:36:y:1992:i:2:p:72-80
    DOI: 10.1177/056943459203600210
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/056943459203600210
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Borland, Jeff, 1987. "The Demand for Australian Rules Football," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 63(182), pages 220-230, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Sung, Hojun & Mills, Brian M., 2018. "Estimation of game-level attendance in major league soccer: Outcome uncertainty and absolute quality considerations," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 519-532.
    2. Srinivas K. Reddy & Antonie Stam & Per J. Agrell, 2015. "Brand Equity, Efficiency and Valuation of Professional Sports Franchises: The Case of Major League Baseball," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 5(1), pages 63-89, January.
    3. Babatunde Buraimo, 2014. "Spectator demand and attendances in English league football," Chapters, in: John Goddard & Peter Sloane (ed.), Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football, chapter 4, pages 60-72, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Dennis Coates & Brad R. Humphreys & Li Zhou, 2014. "Reference-Dependent Preferences, Loss Aversion, And Live Game Attendance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(3), pages 959-973, July.
    5. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2018. "Game Outcome Uncertainty and Television Audience Demand: New Evidence from German Football," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 19(2), pages 140-161, May.
    6. Schreyer, Dominik & Schmidt, Sascha L. & Torgler, Benno, 2016. "Against all odds? Exploring the role of game outcome uncertainty in season ticket holders’ stadium attendance demand," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 192-217.
    7. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad, 2011. "Game Attendance and Competitive Balance in the National Hockey League," Working Papers 2011-8, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
    8. Brian Mills & Rodney Fort, 2014. "League-Level Attendance And Outcome Uncertainty In U.S. Pro Sports Leagues," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 205-218, January.
    9. Lee, Seunghwan & Kim, Yukyoum & Heere, Bob, 2018. "Sport team emotion: Conceptualization, scale development and validation," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 363-376.
    10. Daniel, Rascher, 1999. "A Test of the Optimal Positive Production Network Externality in Major League Baseball," MPRA Paper 25832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Stefan Szymanski, 2006. "Tilting the Playing Field: Why a sports league planner would choose less, not more, competitive balance," Working Papers 0620, International Association of Sports Economists;North American Association of Sports Economists.
    12. Shane Sanders & Justin Ehrlich & James Boudreau, 2017. "Cycles in Team Tennis and Other Paired-Element Contests," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-14, June.
    13. Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
    14. Markus Breuer, 2009. "The demand for football tickets depending on the number of clubs in a city – Empirical evidence from Germany –," Working Papers 2009.5, International Network for Economic Research - INFER.
    15. Robertson, Matthew J., 2018. "Contests with Ex-Ante Target Setting," CRETA Online Discussion Paper Series 47, Centre for Research in Economic Theory and its Applications CRETA.
    16. Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez & Julio del Corral & R. Todd Jewell & Jorge García-Unanue & Cornel Nesseler, 2019. "A Prospective Analysis of Competitive Balance Levels in Major League Soccer," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 54(1), pages 175-190, February.
    17. Eiji Yamamura, 2011. "Game Information, Local Heroes, and Their Effect on Attendance: The Case of the Japanese Baseball League," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 12(1), pages 20-35, February.
    18. Young Hoon Lee & Hayley Jang & Rodney Fort, 2016. "Just looking for a good game: competitive balance in the Korean Professional Baseball League," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(33), pages 3104-3115, July.
    19. Misael Martinez & Jonathan Willner, 2017. "Competitive Balance and Consumer Demand in the English Football League," Applied Finance and Accounting, Redfame publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 49-60, August.
    20. Brown, Katie M. & Salaga, Steven, 2018. "NCAA football television viewership: Product quality and consumer preference relative to market expectations," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 377-390.
    21. Alex Krumer & Michael Lechner, 2018. "Midweek Effect On Soccer Performance: Evidence From The German Bundesliga," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 56(1), pages 193-207, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Gielen, A. C. & van Ours, J.C., 2006. "Why do Worker-Firm Matches Dissolve?," Other publications TiSEM 8c99a292-9f34-4ce8-8fd9-9, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    2. Marco Di Domizio & Raul Caruso, 2015. "Hooliganism and Demand for Football in Italy: Attendance and Counterviolence Policy Evaluation," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 16(2), pages 123-137, May.
    3. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2003. "Attendance and pricing at sporting events: empirical results from Granger Causality Tests for the Melbourne Cup," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(15), pages 1649-1657.
    4. Stefano D'Addona & Axel Kind, 2011. "Forced Manager Turnovers In English Soccer Leagues: A Long-Term Perspective," Working Papers 1011, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre, revised 2011.
    5. Scott Tainsky & Jie Xu & Brian M. Mills & Steven Salaga, 2016. "How Success and Uncertainty Compel Interest in Related Goods: Playoff Probability and Out-of-Market Television Viewership in the National Football League," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 48(1), pages 29-43, February.
    6. Scott Tainsky & Jie Xu & Brian Mills & Steven Salaga, 2016. "How Success and Uncertainty Compel Interest in Related Goods: Playoff Probability and Out-of-Market Television Viewership in the National Football League," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 48(1), pages 29-43, February.
    7. Lional Frost & Luc Borrowman & Abdel K. Halabi, 2015. "Stadiums and Scheduling: Measuring Deadweight Losses in Professional Sports Leagues, 1920-1970," Monash Economics Working Papers 07-15, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    8. Bouvet, Patrick, 2011. "Que valent les compétitions sportives? Une nouvelle piste de réflexion," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 87(2), pages 205-222, juin.
    9. Stephen Dobson & John Goddard & John Wilson, 2001. "League Structure and Match Attendances in English Rugby League," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 335-351.
    10. Scelles, Nicolas (Сели, Николя) & Duran, Christophe (Дюра, Кристоф) & Bonnal, Liliane (Бонналь, Лилиан) & Goyeau, Daniel (Гойюс, Даниэль) & Andreff, Wladimir (Андрефф, Владимир), 2016. "Do all sporting prizes have a significant positive impact on attendance in a European national football league? Competitive intensity in the French Ligue 1 [Действительно Ли Все Спортивные Призы Ок," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 3, pages 82-107, June.
    11. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2012. "Hooliganism and demand for football in Italy. Evidence for the period 1962-2011," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Politica Economica ispe0062, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    12. Mark Baimbridge, 1997. "Match attendance at Euro 96: was the crowd waving or drowning?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(9), pages 555-558.
    13. Bruce Morley & Dennis Thomas, 2007. "Attendance demand and core support: evidence from limited-overs cricket," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(16), pages 2085-2097.
    14. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1996. "The Demand for Football in the Regions of England and Wales," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 443-453.
    15. Dennis Coates & Brad R. Humphreys & Li Zhou, 2014. "Reference-Dependent Preferences, Loss Aversion, And Live Game Attendance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(3), pages 959-973, July.
    16. Babatunde Buraimo & Giuseppe Migali & Rob Simmons, 2020. "Impacts Of The Great Recession On Sport: Evidence From English Football League Attendance Demand," Working Papers 202019, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    17. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad & Zhou, Li, 2012. "Outcome Uncertainty, Reference-Dependent Preferences and Live Game Attendance," Working Papers 2012-7, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
    18. Downward, Paul, 2002. "The Economics of Sport, Volumes I and II, The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics series, Number 135; Andrew Zimbalist (Ed.). Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham UK; pp. 1,312, ISB," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 421-425, June.
    19. David Peel & Dennis Thomas, 1996. "Attendance demand: an investigation of repeat fixtures," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(6), pages 391-394.
    20. Petr A. Parshakov & Kseniya O. Baydina, 2017. "Brands or Uncertainty? An Empirical Test of the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis in Russian Football," HSE Working papers WP BRP 163/EC/2017, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:amerec:v:36:y:1992:i:2:p:72-80. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: http://journals.sagepub.com/home/aex .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.