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Environmental policy instruments and imperfectly competitive international trade

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  • Alistair fnUlph

Abstract

Policy makers, industrialists and environmentalists express concern that the imposition of tough environmental policies in some countries displaces production, and hence pollution, to countries which impose less tough environmental policies. Yet empirical studies of such impacts suggest they are small. However, these findings are derived from models in which international trade is modelled as being perfectly competitive. In this paper I model trade as imperfectly competitive with scope for strategic behavior by producers, in this case investment in capital. I show that the choice of environmental policy instrument can have a marked impact on the incentives for producers to act strategically, with environmental standards significantly reducing the incentives for strategic overinvestment relative to environmental taxes or no environmental policy at all. Whether welfare is higher using standards or taxes depends on whether producing countries are also significant consumers of the polluting product, and on whether all producing governments act to reduce emissions or only some subset of governments. To assess the quantitative significance of these theoretical results I conduct policy simulations on a calibrated model of the world fertilizer industry. These simulations show that the impact of environmental policy on strategic behaviour can be large. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Suggested Citation

  • Alistair fnUlph, 1996. "Environmental policy instruments and imperfectly competitive international trade," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 7(4), pages 333-355, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:7:y:1996:i:4:p:333-355
    DOI: 10.1007/BF00369623
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    2. Jean-Marc Burniaux & John P. Martin & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Joaquim Oliveira Martins, 1992. "The Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions: A Technical Manual," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 115, OECD Publishing.
    3. John Pezzey, 1992. "Analysis of Unilateral CO2 Control in the European Community and OECD," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 159-172.
    4. John Whalley & Randall Wigle, 1991. "Cutting CO2 Emissions: The Effects of Alternative Policy Approaches," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 109-124.
    5. Rauscher, Michael, 1994. "On Ecological Dumping," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 822-840, Supplemen.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Boom, Jan Tjeerd, 2003. "Strategic Choice of Domestic Environmental Policy Instrument and International Emissions Trading Scheme in an Open Economy with Imperfect Competition," Unit of Economics Working papers 24177, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Food and Resource Economic Institute.
    2. Erin T. Mansur, 2007. "Prices vs. Quantities: Environmental Regulation and Imperfect Competition," NBER Working Papers 13510, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Keisuke Hattori, 2010. "Strategic Voting for Noncooperative Environmental Policies in Open Economies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 46(4), pages 459-474, August.
    4. Kazuharu Kiyono & Jota Ishikawa, 2013. "Environmental Management Policy Under International Carbon Leakage," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 54, pages 1057-1083, August.
    5. repec:ind:nipfwp:31 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Requate, Till, 2005. "Environmental Policy under Imperfect Competition: A Survey," Economics Working Papers 2005-12, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    7. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 2001. "Emission Taxes and Standards for an Asymmetric Oligopoly," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-07, CIRANO.
    8. repec:npf:wpaper:31 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Zylicz, Tomasz, 2010. "Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 3(4), pages 299-334, May.
    10. Roy Chowdhury, Indrani, 2005. "Joint ventures, pollution and environmental policy," Working Papers 05/31, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    11. Bárcena-Ruiz, Juan Carlos & Campo, María Luz, 2012. "Partial cross-ownership and strategic environmental policy," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 198-210.
    12. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 1998. "Pollution, Pigouvian Taxes, and Asymmetric International Oligopoly," CIRANO Working Papers 98s-30, CIRANO.
    13. Indrani, Roy Chowdhury, 2006. "Mergers, pollution and environmental policy," MPRA Paper 7900, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Fredrik Carlsson, 2000. "Environmental Taxation and Strategic Commitment in Duopoly Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 15(3), pages 243-256, March.
    15. Feenstra, Talitha & Kort, Peter M. & de Zeeuw, Aart, 2001. "Environmental policy instruments in an international duopoly with feedback investment strategies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(10), pages 1665-1687, October.
    16. Erik Teodoor Verhoef & Peter Nijkamp, 1998. "Energy policies in spatial systems: A spatial price equilibrium approach with heterogeneous regions and endogenous technologies," ERSA conference papers ersa98p113, European Regional Science Association.

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