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The effect of upper echelons’ compensation on firm internationalization


  • Wen-Ting Lin


  • Kuei-Yang Cheng



This paper is built upon previous work concerning how three factors—an upper echelon’s compensation, the total compensation level of a chief executive officer (CEO), and compensation gaps between a CEO and a top management team (TMT)—affect a firm’s international expansion level. Using longitudinal data (2000–2005) from 528 publicly listed firms in Taiwan as our sample, we found that CEO total compensation level and TMT total compensation were positively related to firms’ international expansion level, and that the larger the compensation gap between CEO and TMT, the higher the given firm’s international expansion level. The implications that these findings have for future research are discussed. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Wen-Ting Lin & Kuei-Yang Cheng, 2013. "The effect of upper echelons’ compensation on firm internationalization," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 73-90, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:asiapa:v:30:y:2013:i:1:p:73-90 DOI: 10.1007/s10490-011-9261-9

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
    2. Lawrence F. Katz, 1986. "Efficiency Wage Theories: A Partial Evaluation," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1986, Volume 1, pages 235-290 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    4. Araujo, Luis & Rezende, Sergio, 2003. "Path dependence, MNCs and the internationalisation process: a relational approach," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 719-737, December.
    5. Lien, Yung-Chih & Piesse, Jenifer & Strange, Roger & Filatotchev, Igor, 2005. "The role of corporate governance in FDI decisions: Evidence from Taiwan," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 739-763, December.
    6. Main, Brian G M & O'Reilly, Charles A, III & Wade, James, 1993. "Top Executive Pay: Tournament or Teamwork?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(4), pages 606-628, October.
    7. Hanlon, Michelle & Rajgopal, Shivaram & Shevlin, Terry, 2003. "Are executive stock options associated with future earnings?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-3), pages 3-43, December.
    8. Leone, Andrew J. & Wu, Joanna Shuang & Zimmerman, Jerold L., 2006. "Asymmetric sensitivity of CEO cash compensation to stock returns," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 167-192, October.
    9. Alessandro Minichilli & Guido Corbetta & Ian C. MacMillan, 2010. "Top Management Teams in Family-Controlled Companies: 'Familiness', 'Faultlines', and Their Impact on Financial Performance," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 205-222, March.
    10. Kuivalainen, Olli & Sundqvist, Sanna & Servais, Per, 2007. "Firms' degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 253-267, September.
    11. Trevor Buck & Xiaohui Liu & Rodion Skovoroda, 2008. "Top executive pay and firm performance in China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(5), pages 833-850, July.
    12. Riu Yokota & Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, 2008. "Attributive change in top management teams as a driver of strategic change," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 297-315, June.
    13. James Dow & Clara C. Raposo, 2005. "CEO Compensation, Change, and Corporate Strategy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2701-2727, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. M. Díaz-Fernández & M. González-Rodríguez & Biagio Simonetti, 2015. "Top Management Teams’ demographic characteristics and their influence on strategic change," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(3), pages 1305-1322, May.


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