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Ownership Structure and the Value of the Firm: The Case of REITs

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Abstract

This article examines the relation between ownership structure and firm value as proxied by market-to-book ratios for real estate investment trusts (REITs) over the period 1980 to 1994. Piecewise regression analysis reveals a nonlinear relationship between REIT market-to-book ratios and ownership structure. Low levels of inside ownership are associated with increased market-to-book ratios for equity REITs. However, as inside block ownership rises above 5%, equity REIT market-to-book ratios decline. The opposite result is true for hybrid and mortgage REITs. Similarly, higher levels of outside blockholdings have a negative impact on both equity and hybrid and mortgage market-to-book ratios.

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  • H. Swint Friday & G. Stacy Sirmans & C. Mitchell Conover, 1999. "Ownership Structure and the Value of the Firm: The Case of REITs," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 17(1), pages 71-90.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:17:n:1:1999:p:71-90
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    1. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    2. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    3. Damodaran, Aswath & Liu, Crocker H, 1993. "Insider Trading as a Signal of Private Information," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(1), pages 79-119.
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    5. Fama, Eugene F & Jensen, Michael C, 1983. "Separation of Ownership and Control," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 301-325, June.
    6. Dennis R. Capozza & Sohan Lee, 1995. "Property Type, Size, and REIT Value," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(4), pages 363-380.
    7. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    8. Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G. & Pontiff, Jeffrey, 1993. "Private benefits from block ownership and discounts on closed-end funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 263-291, June.
    9. Demsetz, Harold, 1983. "The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 375-390, June.
    10. David H. Downs, 1998. "The Value in Targeting Institutional Investors: Evidence from the Five-or-Fewer Rule Change," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(4), pages 613-649.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rob Bauer & Piet Eichholtz & Nils Kok, 2010. "Corporate Governance and Performance: The REIT Effect," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 1-29.
    2. Han, Bing, 2004. "Insider Ownership and Corporate Value: Evidences from Real Estate Investment Trust," Working Paper Series 2004-1, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    3. Robert H. Edelstein & Antoni Sureda-Gomila & Branko Urosević & Nicholas Wonder, 2010. "Ownership Dynamics with Multiple Insiders: The Case of REITs," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 57-90.
    4. Brounen, Dirk & Kok, Nils & Ling, David C., 2012. "Shareholder composition, share turnover, and returns in volatile markets: The case of international REITs," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1867-1889.
    5. Erik Devos & Seow-Eng Ong & Andrew Spieler & Desmond Tsang, 2013. "REIT Institutional Ownership Dynamics and the Financial Crisis," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 266-288, August.
    6. Oikarinen, Elias, 2006. "Price Linkages between Stock, Bond and Housing Markets - Evidence from Finnish Data," Discussion Papers 1004, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    7. Wen-Hsiu Chou & William Hardin & Matthew Hill & G. Kelly, 2013. "Dividends, Values and Agency Costs in REITs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 91-114, January.
    8. Paul Anglin & Robert Edelstein & Yanmin Gao & Desmond Tsang, 2013. "What is the Relationship Between REIT Governance and Earnings Management?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 538-563, October.
    9. Paul Anglin & Robert Edelstein & Yanmin Gao & Desmond Tsang, 2011. "How Does Corporate Governance Affect the Quality of Investor Information? The Curious Case of REITs," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 33(1), pages 1-24.
    10. Bienert, Sven, . "METASTUDIE :NACHHALTIGKEIT CONTRA RENDITE? Die Implikationen nachhaltigen Wirtschaftens für offene Immobilienfonds am Beispiel der Deka Immobilien Investment GmbH und der WestInvest GmbH," Beiträge zur Immobilienwirtschaft, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics, number 14, July.
    11. repec:kap:jrefec:v:55:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11146-016-9577-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Robert Edelstein & Branko Urošević & Nicholas Wonder, 2005. "Ownership Dynamics of REITs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 447-466, June.
    13. Bing Han, 2006. "Insider Ownership and Firm Value: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 471-493, June.
    14. Walter Dolde & John Knopf, 2010. "Insider Ownership, Risk, and Leverage in REITs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 412-432, November.
    15. William Hardin & Michael Highfield & Matthew Hill & G. Kelly, 2009. "The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 39-57, July.
    16. Nicolas Kohl & Wolfgang Schaefers, 2012. "Corporate Governance and Market Valuation of Publicly Traded Real Estate Companies: Evidence from Europe," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 362-393, April.

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    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services

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