IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Stationarity and Co-Integration in Systems with Three National Real Estate Indices



This study examines the stochastic properties of the commercial real estate wealth indices for three countries (the U.S., Canada, and the U.K.) and for several property types (aggregate, office, retail, and industrial). Each of the indices is tested for a unit root and all series are found to be nonstationary. Furthermore, all indices also indicate the presence of both drift and trend. The results are strongest when the indices are tested in real estate and exchange rate-adjusted form. Application of Johansen's model indicates that the system for the three countries shows evidence of co-integration for the aggregate, retail, office, and industrial properties. Again, the evidence is the strongest when the indices are tested in real and exchange rate-adjusted form. Hence, it is conceivable that inflationary expectations may be the factor that provides the common linkage between commercial real estate across national boundaries.

Suggested Citation

  • F.C. Neil Myer & Mukesh K. Chaudhry & James R. Webb, 1997. "Stationarity and Co-Integration in Systems with Three National Real Estate Indices," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 13(3), pages 369-381.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:13:n:3:1997:p:369-381

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Granger, C. W. J., 1981. "Some properties of time series data and their use in econometric model specification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 121-130, May.
    2. Muscatelli, Vito Antonio & Hurn, A Stan, 1992. " Cointegration and Dynamic Time Series Models," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 1-43.
    3. Barry Eichengreen., 1992. "Three Perspectives on the Bretton Woods System," Economics Working Papers 92-191, University of California at Berkeley.
    4. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    5. Ross, Stephen A & Zisler, Randall C, 1991. "Risk and Return in Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 175-190, June.
    6. Bruce Kasman & Charles Pigott, 1988. "Interest rate divergences among the major industrial nations," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Aut, pages 28-44.
    7. Lawrence J. Radecki & Vincent Reinhart, 1988. "The globalization of financial markets and the effectiveness of monetary policy instruments," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Aut, pages 18-27.
    8. Engle, Robert F. & Yoo, Byung Sam, 1987. "Forecasting and testing in co-integrated systems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 143-159, May.
    9. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Al-Mohana, Safa & Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser, 2016. "The Impact of Recent Crisis on the Real Estate Market on the UAE: Evidence from Asymmetric Methods," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 69(4), pages 389-428.
    2. Nafeesa Yunus & J. Hansz & Paul Kennedy, 2012. "Dynamic Interactions Between Private and Public Real Estate Markets: Some International Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 1021-1040, November.
    3. Gerlach, Richard & Wilson, Patrick & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2006. "Structural breaks and diversification: The impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis on the integration of Asia-Pacific real estate markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 974-991, October.
    4. Oikarinen, Elias, 2006. "Price Linkages between Stock, Bond and Housing Markets - Evidence from Finnish Data," Discussion Papers 1004, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    5. John G. Gallo & Larry J. Lockwood & Ying Zhang, 2013. "Structuring Global Property Portfolios: A Cointegration Approach," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 35(1), pages 53-82.
    6. Nafeesa Yunus, 2009. "Increasing Convergence Between U.S. and International Securitized Property Markets: Evidence Based on Cointegration Tests," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(3), pages 383-411.
    7. Pat Wilson & Ralf Zurbruegg, 2003. "International Diversification of Real Estate Assets - Is it Worth It? Evidence from the Literature," Working Paper Series 126, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    8. Paul Gallimore & J. Andrew Hansz & Wikrom Prombutr & Ying Zhang, 2014. "Long-term Cointegrative and Short-term Causal Relations among U.S. Real Estate Sectors," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 17(3), pages 359-394.
    9. James Payne & Hassan Mohammadi, 2004. "The transmission of shocks across real estate investment trust (REIT) markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(17), pages 1211-1217.
    10. repec:kap:jrefec:v:56:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11146-017-9601-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:ire:issued:v:20:n:03:2017:p:287-324 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:13:n:3:1997:p:369-381. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (JRER Graduate Assistant/Webmaster). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.