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A Note on Testing ¡°Tax-and-Spend, Spend-and-Tax or Fiscal Synchronization¡±: The Case of China


  • Tsangyao Chang

    (Department and Graduate Institute of Economics, Feng Chia University)

  • Yuan-Hong Ho

    () (Department and Graduate Institute of Public Finance, Feng Chia University)


The hypothesis of tax-and-spend, spend-and-tax, or fiscal synchronization was tested using annual time series data for China over the period 1977 to 1999. We include GDP as a control variable into the model like Baghestani and Mcnown (1994), Koren and Stiassny (1998), and Chang et al. (2002). The results from Granger causality test based on the corresponding multivariate error-correction models (MVECM) suggest feedback between government revenues and government expenditures, supporting the fiscal synchronization hypothesis for China.

Suggested Citation

  • Tsangyao Chang & Yuan-Hong Ho, 2002. "A Note on Testing ¡°Tax-and-Spend, Spend-and-Tax or Fiscal Synchronization¡±: The Case of China," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 151-160, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:jed:journl:v:27:y:2002:i:1:p:151-160

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    2. Thornton, Daniel L & Batten, Dallas S, 1985. "Lag-Length Selection and Tests of Granger Causality between Money and Income," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(2), pages 164-178, May.
    3. Baffes, John & Shah, Anwar, 1994. "Causality and comovement between taxes and expenditures: Historical evidence from Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 311-331, August.
    4. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
    5. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S, 1993. "Finite-Sample Sizes of Johansen's Likelihood Ration Tests for Conintegration," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(3), pages 313-328, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yuan-Hong Ho & Chiung-Ju Huang, 2009. "Tax-Spend, Spend-Tax, or Fiscal Synchronization: A Panel Analysis of the Chinese Provincial Real Data," Journal of Economics and Management, College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, vol. 5(2), pages 257-272, July.
    2. Yaya Keho, 2010. "Spending Cuts or Tax Adjustments: How Can UEMOA Countries Control Their Budget Deficits?," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 9(3), pages 233-252, December.
    3. Takumah, Wisdom, 2014. "The Dynamic Causal Relationship between Government Revenue and Government Expenditure Nexus in Ghana," MPRA Paper 58579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Obeng, Samuel, 2015. "A Causality Test of the Revenue-Expenditure Nexus in Ghana," MPRA Paper 63735, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Feb 2015.
    5. Kollias, Christos & Papadamou, Stephanos & Psarianos, Iacovos, 2014. "Fiscal imbalances and asymmetric adjustment under Labour and Conservative governments in the UK," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 208-213.

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