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The Influence of Learning Orientation and Human Resource Practices on Firm Innovativeness and Innovations: An Application of the Push and Pull Framework


  • Chia-Chien Hsu

    (Department of Leisure and Recreation Management, Kainan University, Taiwan)

  • Chiung-Shu Cheng

    (Ph.D. Program in Management, Dayeh University, Taiwan)

  • Ching-Torng Lin

    () (Department of Information Management, Dayeh University, Taiwan)


Innovation is the key to sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity for firms in ever-changing business environments. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesized model, which focuses on examining how human resource practices and learning orientation affect innovativeness and innovation performance. This study proposes the "learning-orientation-pull" and "HR-practices-push" concepts and tests them after analyzing a survey of 305 general managers or senior executives in Taiwan. The results indicate that learning orientation and HR practices significantly impact firms' innovativeness, which subsequently has a significant positive effect on product, process, and administrative innovation. This result also revalidates that the push and pull framework is a workable idea for both explanation and prediction of a firm’s potential or possible innovation capabilities. HR practices and learning orientation are important exogenous constructs that influence a firm’s innovation abilities. Thus, an innovative firm appears to adopt HR practices and learning orientations to push and pull on product, process, and administrative innovation.

Suggested Citation

  • Chia-Chien Hsu & Chiung-Shu Cheng & Ching-Torng Lin, 2017. "The Influence of Learning Orientation and Human Resource Practices on Firm Innovativeness and Innovations: An Application of the Push and Pull Framework," Journal of Economics and Management, College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, vol. 13(1), pages 27-51, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:jec:journl:v:13:y:2017:i:1:p:27-51

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kotsemir, Maxim & Meissner, Dirk, 2013. "Conceptualizing the Innovation Process – Trends and Outlook," MPRA Paper 46504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Franklyn A Manu, 1992. "Innovation Orientation, Environment and Performance: A Comparison of U.S. and European Markets," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(2), pages 333-359, June.
    3. Keld Laursen, 2002. "The Importance of Sectoral Differences in the Application of Complementary HRM Practices for Innovation Performance," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 139-156.
    4. Chen, Chung-Jen & Huang, Jing-Wen, 2009. "Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance -- The mediating role of knowledge management capacity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 104-114, January.
    5. Frank Crowley & Jane Bourke, 2017. "The Influence Of Human Resource Management Systems On Innovation: Evidence From Irish Manufacturing And Service Firms," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 21(01), pages 1-28, January.
    6. Atuahene-Gima, Kwaku, 1996. "Market orientation and innovation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 93-103, February.
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    More about this item


    push and pull framework; learning orientation; human resource practices; innovativeness; innovation;

    JEL classification:

    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General


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