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—Price-Matching Guarantees, Retail Competition, and Product-Line Assortment


  • Anne T. Coughlan

    () (Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208)

  • Greg Shaffer

    () (William E. Simon Graduate School of Business, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627)


Price-matching guarantees (PMGs) are offers to match a competitor's price on a specific item. Such guarantees are extremely common in U.S. retail practice, and their impact has been studied in several published papers. The existing analytic literature models each retailer as a single-product seller; most work assumes that each retailer's product is identical with (or completely substitutable for) the competitor's product. In reality, competing retailers often sell multiple products, and these products do not always overlap, or may overlap partially but not totally. Furthermore, retailers that offer PMGs routinely exclude certain offerings from PMG coverage. This raises the interesting question of how product variety and product-stocking factors affect retailer decisions about offering PMGs. In this paper, we simultaneously consider three factors of retailing importance that imply results consistent with PMG use and nonuse: the ability to choose to stock the same product as, or a product differentiated from, a competitor's offering; the possibility of shelf-space limitations on the ability to stock complete variety; and the category-demand-enhancing effect of variety. These are sensible and realistic descriptive factors shaping retailers' product and pricing decisions, and because they have not been considered jointly in the prior literature on PMGs, their joint consideration helps to expand our understanding of the drivers of PMG implementation and impact. In the presence of these three factors, we examine retailers' decisions about whether to offer a PMG, what product(s) to stock, and how to price the product(s) stocked. Our results show that shelf-space limitations have an important influence on PMG provision: in particular, when retailers are shelf-space constrained, and product substitutability in the category is sufficiently large, choosing to use PMGs (which by definition also requires stocking identical products) is strictly less profitable than enduring Bertrand (price) competition but enjoying retail product differentiation. The result that PMGs can be profit-reducing relative to head-to-head retail competition is a novel one, driven in our model by the opportunity costs of stocking identical products, i.e., the inability to benefit from the demand-enhancing effects of variety and the differential (small or large) between Bertrand pricing and PMG pricing levels. We further show that under asymmetric shelf-space availability, either product variety will be severely limited or retailers will offer a different array of products. Weak substitution between products leads to the latter, with pricing between the differentiated products Bertrand and monopoly levels; strong substitution leads to the former, with pricing at the monopoly level. Our results also show that with unlimited shelf space, both competing retailers offer PMGs, stock the entire available product line, and enjoy monopoly pricing. Given our focus on product variety issues, we also relate our results to the literature on branded variants. Our results demonstrate that the nature of product variety, the availability of retail shelf space, and the category-demand-enhancing effect of variety are key market characteristics that jointly and strongly affect the optimality of PMGs and the resulting pricing and profitability characteristics of the market.

Suggested Citation

  • Anne T. Coughlan & Greg Shaffer, 2009. "—Price-Matching Guarantees, Retail Competition, and Product-Line Assortment," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(3), pages 580-588, 05-06.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:28:y:2009:i:3:p:580-588

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arbatskaya, Maria & Hviid, Morten & Shaffer, Greg, 2004. "On the Incidence and Variety of Low-Price Guarantees," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 307-332, April.
    2. Zhiqi Chen, 1995. "How Low Is a Guaranteed-Lowest-Price?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 683-701, August.
    3. Corts, Kenneth S., 1997. "On the competitive effects of price-matching policies," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 283-299, May.
    4. Png, I P L & Hirshleifer, D, 1987. "Price Discrimination through Offers to Match Price," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(3), pages 365-383, July.
    5. Arbatskaya, Maria & Hviid, Morten & Shaffer, Greg, 2006. "On the use of low-price guarantees to discourage price cutting," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1139-1156, November.
    6. Morten Hviid & Greg Shaffer, 1999. "Hassle Costs: The Achilles' Heel of Price-Matching Guarantees," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 489-521, December.
    7. Hviid, M. & Shaffer, G., 1994. "Do Low-Price Guarantees Facilitate Collusion?," Papers 94-01, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
    8. Logan, John W. & Lutter, Randall W., 1989. "Guaranteed lowest prices: do they facilitate collusion?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 189-192, December.
    9. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:2:p:449-465 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Yuxin Chen & Chakravarthi Narasimhan & Z. John Zhang, 2001. "Consumer Heterogeneity and Competitive Price-Matching Guarantees," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 20(3), pages 300-314, June.
    11. Srivastava, Joydeep & Lurie, Nicholas, 2001. " A Consumer Perspective on Price-Matching Refund Policies: Effect on Price Perceptions and Search Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(2), pages 296-307, September.
    12. Corts, Kenneth S., 1995. "On the robustness of the argument that price-matching is anti-competitive," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 47(3-4), pages 417-421, March.
    13. Zhang, Z John, 1995. "Price-Matching Policy and the Principle of Minimum Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 287-299, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Granero, Lluís M., 2013. "Most-favored-customer pricing, product variety, and welfare," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(3), pages 579-582.
    2. Ter Braak, A.M., 2012. "A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels," Other publications TiSEM ca6b716b-bcd3-4a09-aa00-d, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    3. Aaron M. Garvey & Simon J. Blanchard & Karen Page Winterich, 2017. "Turning unplanned overpayment into a status signal: how mentioning the price paid repairs satisfaction," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 71-83, March.
    4. repec:eee:ejores:v:265:y:2018:i:2:p:399-422 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:aes:icmbdj:v:2:y:2016:i:1:p:109-114 is not listed on IDEAS


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