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The credit crunch of 2007-2008: a discussion of the background, market reactions, and policy responses

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  • Paul Mizen

    (Loughborough University
    Festschrift conference in honour of Charles Goodhart (15-11-2001 - 16-11-2001)
    Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich
    Centre for Finance Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM))

Abstract

This paper discusses the events surrounding the 2007-08 credit crunch. It highlights the period of exceptional macrostability, the global savings glut, and financial innovation in mortgage-backed securities as the precursors to the crisis. The credit crunch itself occurred when house prices fell and subprime mortgage defaults increased. These events caused investors to reappraise the risks of high-yielding securities, bank failures, and sharp increases in the spreads on funds in interbank markets. The paper evaluates the actions of the authorities that provided liquidity to the markets and failing banks and indicates areas where improvements could be made. Similarly, it examines the regulation and supervision during this time and argues the need for changes to avoid future crises.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Mizen, 2008. "The credit crunch of 2007-2008: a discussion of the background, market reactions, and policy responses," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue sep, pages 531-568.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2008:i:sep:p:531-568:n:v.90no.5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Ben S. Bernanke & Cara S. Lown, 1991. "The Credit Crunch," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(2), pages 205-248.
    6. repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2002:i:nov21 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Giovanni Dell’ariccia & Deniz Igan & Luc Laeven, 2012. "Credit Booms and Lending Standards: Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44, pages 367-384, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Đorđe Đukić & Mališa Đukić, 2009. "The Global Financial Crisis and the Behaviour of Short-Term Interest Rates International and Serbian Aspects," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 56(4), pages 491-506, December.
    2. Anindya Banerjee & Victor Bystrov & Paul Mizen, 2010. "Interest rate pass-through in the major European economies - the role of expectations," Discussion Papers 10-07, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    3. Massimo Guidolin & Francesca Rinaldi, 2010. "A simple model of trading and pricing risky assets under ambiguity: any lessons for policy-makers?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(1-2), pages 105-135.
    4. Orlowski, Lucjan T, 2008. "Stages of the 2007/2008 Global Financial Crisis: Is There a Wandering Asset-Price Bubble?," MPRA Paper 12696, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Phillip Anthony O’Hara, 2011. "International Subprime Crisis and Recession: Emerging Macroprudential, Monetary, Fiscal and Global Governance," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 58(1), pages 1-17, March.
    6. José Francisco Bellod Redondo, 2011. "Crisis y reforma de las cajas de ahorros en España," Contribuciones a la Economía, Grupo Eumed.net (Universidad de Málaga), issue 2011-05, May.
    7. Gabrisch, Hubert & Orlowski, Lucjan T., 2010. "The Extreme Risk Problem for Monetary Policies of the Euro-Candidates," IWH Discussion Papers 12/2010, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    8. Cukierman, Alex, 2011. "Reflections on the crisis and on its lessons for regulatory reform and for central bank policies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 26-37, January.
    9. Weitzel, Utz & Kling, Gerhard & Gerritsen, Dirk, 2014. "Testing the fire-sale FDI hypothesis for the European financial crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PB), pages 211-234.
    10. Saud Al Taj, 2015. "The Royal Bank of Scotland and Its Reputational Decline: A Case Study," Business and Management Horizons, Macrothink Institute, vol. 3(2), pages 13-23, December.
    11. Lucjan T. Orlowski, 2008. "Stages of the Ongoing Global Financial Crisis: Is There a Wandering Asset-Price Bubble?," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0372, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    12. Gagnon, Marie-Hélène & Gimet, Céline, 2013. "The impacts of standard monetary and budgetary policies on liquidity and financial markets: International evidence from the credit freeze crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4599-4614.
    13. José Francisco Bellod Redondo, 2010. "La Crisis Imposible: Tragedia En Tres Actos," Contribuciones a la Economía, Grupo Eumed.net (Universidad de Málaga), issue 2010-03, March.
    14. Ulrich van Suntum, "undated". "Economic Confidence, Negative Interest Rates, and Liquidity: Towards Keynesianism 2.0," Working Papers 200108, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
    15. Giancarlo Bertocco, 2014. "Global Saving Glut and Housing Bubble: A Critical Analysis," Economia politica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 195-218.
    16. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John, 2014. "Anatomy of a bail-in," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 257-263.
    17. Ji, Philip Inyeob & In, Francis, 2010. "The impact of the global financial crisis on the cross-currency linkage of LIBOR-OIS spreads," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 575-589, December.
    18. repec:mgt:youmng:v:12:y:2017:i:4:p:301-316 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Manuel B. Aalbers, 2009. "The Sociology and Geography of Mortgage Markets: Reflections on the Financial Crisis," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(2), pages 281-290, June.
    20. Ebrahimi Kahou, Mahdi & Lehar, Alfred, 2017. "Macroprudential policy: A review," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 92-105.
    21. Machinea, José Luis, 2008. "The international financial crisis: its nature and the economic policy challenges," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    22. Richard G. Anderson, 2009. "Resolving a banking crisis, the Nordic way," Economic Synopses, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    23. van Suntum, Ulrich, 2009. "Economic confidence, negative interest rates, and liquidity: Towards Keynesianism 2.0," CAWM Discussion Papers 24, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).
    24. Suntum Ulrich van & Ilgmann Cordelius, 2009. "Das Bilanzproblem der Banken – Ein Lösungsvorschlag / The bank‘s balance sheet problems: a proposal for a solution," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 60(1), pages 223-246, January.
    25. Woon Sau Leung & Nicholas Taylor, 2013. "Testing for contagion: the impact of US structured markets on international financial markets," Chapters, in: Adrian R. Bell & Chris Brooks & Marcel Prokopczuk (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Finance, chapter 11, pages 256-284, Edward Elgar Publishing.

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    Keywords

    Financial crises; Credit;

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