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Lessons from the 2007 Financial Crisis

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  • Buiter, Willem H.

Abstract

The paper studies the causes of the current financial crisis and considers proposals for mitigation and prevention of future crises. The crisis is was the product of a ‘perfect storm’ bringing together a number of microeconomic and macroeconomic pathologies. Among the microeconomic systemic failures were: wanton securitisation, fundamental flaws in the rating agencies’ business model, the procyclical behaviour of leverage in much of the financial system and of the Basel capital adequacy requirements, privately rational but socially inefficient disintermediation, and competitive international de-regulation. Proximate local drivers of the specific way in which these problems manifested themselves were regulatory and supervisory failure in the US home loan market. Among the macroeconomic pathologies that contributed to the crisis were, first, excessive global liquidity creation by key central banks and, second, an ex-ante global saving glut, brought about by the entry of a number of high-saving countries (notably China) into the global economy and a global redistribution of wealth and income towards commodity exporters that also had, at least in the short run, high propensities to save. In the UK, failures of the Tripartite financial stability arrangement between the Treasury the Bank of England and the FSA, weaknesses in the Bank of England’s liquidity management, regulatory failure of the FSA, an inadequate deposit insurance arrangement and deficient insolvency laws for the banking sector contributed to the financial disarray. Despite this, it may well be possible to minimize the spillovers over from the crisis beyond the financial sectors of the industrial countries and the housing sectors of the US and a few European countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Buiter, Willem H., 2007. "Lessons from the 2007 Financial Crisis," CEPR Discussion Papers 6596, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6596
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Orlowski, Lucjan T, 2008. "Stages of the 2007/2008 Global Financial Crisis: Is There a Wandering Asset-Price Bubble?," MPRA Paper 12696, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Jan-Egbert Sturm & Jakob de Haan & Eelco Zandberg, 2009. "Auswirkungen von Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrisen auf die wirtschaftliche Entscheidungsfreiheit," KOF Analysen, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, vol. 3(4), pages 51-64, December.
    3. Ahn, Jung-Hyun & Breton, Régis, 2014. "Securitization, competition and monitoring," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 195-210.
    4. Eickmeier, Sandra & Hofmann, Boris, 2013. "Monetary Policy, Housing Booms, And Financial (Im)Balances," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(04), pages 830-860, June.
    5. Valerio Filoso, Valerio & Panico, Carlo & Papagni, Erasmo & Francesco, Purificato & Vázquez Suarez, Marta, 2016. "Causes and timing of the European debt crisis: An econometric evaluation," MPRA Paper 75847, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Rodolfo Signorino, 2011. "Economics in the Mirror of the Financial Crisis," Chapters,in: The Global Financial Crisis, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Ines Drumond, 2009. "Bank Capital Requirements, Business Cycle Fluctuations And The Basel Accords: A Synthesis," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 798-830, December.
    8. Rötheli, Tobias F., 2010. "Causes of the financial crisis: Risk misperception, policy mistakes, and banks' bounded rationality," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 119-126, April.
    9. Michel Aglietta & Sandra Rigot, 2008. "The regulation of hedge funds under the prism of the financial crisis," EconomiX Working Papers 2008-20, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    10. Willem H. Buiter, 2010. "Economic, Political and Institutional Prerequisites for Monetary Union Among the Members of the Gulf Cooperation Council," Chapters,in: Currency Union and Exchange Rate Issues, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Caprio, Gerard & D’Apice, Vincenzo & Ferri, Giovanni & Puopolo, Giovanni Walter, 2014. "Macro-financial determinants of the great financial crisis: Implications for financial regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 114-129.
    12. Michel Aglietta & Antoine Rebérioux, 2012. "Financialisation and the Firm," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics and Theory of the Firm, chapter 23 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Eickmeier, Sandra, 2009. "Analyse der Übertragung US-amerikanischer Schocks auf Deutschland auf Basis eines FAVAR," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,35, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    14. Myftari, Entela & Rossi, Sergio, 2010. "Prix des actifs et politique monétaire : enjeux et perspectives après la crise financière de 2007-2009," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 86(3), pages 355-383, septembre.
    15. Marc Hayford & Anastasios Malliaris, 2010. "Asset Prices and the Financial Crisis of 2007--09: An Overview of Theories and Policies," Forum for Social Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 279-286, January.
    16. Jack R. Rogers, 2013. "Monetary Transmission to UK Retail Mortgage Rates before and after August 2007," Discussion Papers 1307, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
    17. Frédéric Marty, 2008. "Crise des subprimes et finances publiques locales : Le cas des « obligations municipales » américaines," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2008-20, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    18. Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu, 2008. "Central Bank or Single Financial Supervision Authority: The Romanian Case," MPRA Paper 17225, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Jan 2009.
    19. Michel Aglietta, 2008. "Les crises financières : plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 7(1), pages 39-45.
    20. André Cartapanis & Jérôme Teïletche, 2008. "Les hedge funds et la crise financière internationale," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 7(1), pages 185-193.
    21. Jiang, John (Xuefeng) & Harris Stanford, Mary & Xie, Yuan, 2012. "Does it matter who pays for bond ratings? Historical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(3), pages 607-621.
    22. Ewald Engelen & Anna Glasmacher, 2013. "Multiple Financial Modernities. International Financial Centres, Urban Boosters and the Internet as the Site of Negotiations," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(6), pages 850-867, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    collateral; financial stability; leverage; liquidity; rating agencies; regulation; securitization;

    JEL classification:

    • D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
    • D53 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Financial Markets
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F37 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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