IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Migration in the Tenth District : long-term trends and current developments


  • William R. Keeton
  • Geoffrey B. Newton


The movement of people into and out of a state can have important implications for the state’s economy. The total net inflow of people to a state matters because it affects the overall supply of workers in the state. Economists predict that growth in the national labor force will slow in coming decades as a result of such factors as the aging of the baby boomers and the decline in the fertility rate. As this happens, the availability of workers is likely to become an increasingly more important factor in the location decisions of firms. ; Migration matters not only for the size of a state’s workforce but also for the composition of the workforce. The spread of computers and advances in information technology have increased the demand for highly educated workers over the last two decades. Most economists expect the demand for such workers to continue growing in response to further advances in technology. But there will also continue to be a need for unskilled workers to perform jobs at the bottom of the job distribution. In deciding where to locate, firms are likely to pay careful attention to the educational composition of a state’s workforce in addition to the size. The most important determinant of the educational composition of the workforce is the quality of the state’s educational institutions. But also important is whether the state is retaining and attracting the kinds of workers in demand by businesses—for example, whether the state is suffering a net gain or net loss of college graduates to the rest of the nation, and whether the state is receiving too large or too small an influx of less educated immigrants from abroad. ; Focusing on the last half century, Keeton and Newton examine overall patterns in total migration and migration by level of education in Tenth District states. They show that the net inflow of people from other states has been consistently positive in only one state, Colorado, but has gradually improved in most other states. In addition, immigration increased greatly in most district states but ended up more important than in the nation only in Colorado. They also show that many district states have experienced both a net loss of college graduates to the rest of the nation and a net gain of people without high school degrees from abroad. The effects of these migration flows on the mix of workers have been greatly outweighed up till now by increases in education in the population at large. Finally, the authors show that in the current decade migration flows have taken a turn for the worse in several states, but this shift was due to temporary changes in relative economic conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • William R. Keeton & Geoffrey B. Newton, 2006. "Migration in the Tenth District : long-term trends and current developments," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 33-74.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedker:y:2006:i:qiii:p:33-74:n:v.91no.3

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L. Glaeser, 2002. "Geographic Concentration As A Dynamic Process," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 193-204, May.
    2. Glenn H. Miller, 1994. "People on the move: trends and prospects in District migration flows," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 39-54.
    3. Yolanda Kodrzycki, 2002. "Educational attainment as a constraint on economic growth and social progress," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 47(Jun), pages 37-95.
    4. Mark Drabenstott & Mark Henry & Kristin Mitchell, 1999. "Where have all the packing plants gone? : the new meat geography in rural America," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 65-82.
    5. David T. Ellwood, 2001. "The Sputtering Labor Force of the 21st Century. Can Social Policy Help?," NBER Working Papers 8321, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Chad R. Wilkerson & Megan D. Williams, 2006. "Minority workers in the Tenth District: rising presence, rising challenges," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 31-59.

    More about this item


    Federal Reserve District; 10th;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedker:y:2006:i:qiii:p:33-74:n:v.91no.3. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (LDayrit). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.