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Unemployment and Violence: ARDL Endogeneity Approach. (Desempleo y violencia: Enfoque de endogeneidad ARDL)

Author

Listed:
  • Adenuga Fabian Adekoya

    () (Department of Economics, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija-Epe, Lagos, Nigeria.)

  • Nor Azam Abdul Razak

    (Department of Economics, School of Economics, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok 06010, Malaysia.)

Abstract

This study examines the link between unemployment and violence by controlling for income and security expenditure as an antidote to reduce violence in Nigeria. Violence claims many lives and properties in the country, which further increased the demand for public security as tax on the nation’s resources. Also, the increased unemployment in Nigeria, deserving urgent attention to be reduced, as literature has pointed out, causes idleness, deception, frustration and anger. The idea of criminal motivation and strain as an inducement to violence are supported by evidence. Considering the nature of the variables in this study, we tested for endogeneity by using annual data set from 1980 to 2015 before proceeding to test for the long-run and short-run relationship. The Bound Test used to test the cointegration while the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) approach was used to conduct endogeneity test. ARDL Instrumental Variable is also employed to determine long-run and short-run estimates. The results showed that unemployment causes violence while income as a variable to economic growth reduces violence at the 1% level of significance. Similarly, the deterrence variable of security expenditure adversely affects violence at the 10% level of significance. Therefore, this study suggests policy to promote economic growth as the means of income-employment generation among the youth and the unemployed. Youth programs should be provided especially among the unemployed by granting credit facilities to finance their own projects and further strengthen the deterrence institutions.

Suggested Citation

  • Adenuga Fabian Adekoya & Nor Azam Abdul Razak, 2018. "Unemployment and Violence: ARDL Endogeneity Approach. (Desempleo y violencia: Enfoque de endogeneidad ARDL)," Ensayos Revista de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Economia, vol. 0(2), pages 155-176, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ere:journl:v:xxxvii:y:2018:i:2:p:155-176
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unemployment; Income; Security Expenditure; Violence; Endogeneity ARDL Instrumental Variable;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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