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Economic Development, Inequality and Poverty: An Analysis of Urban Violence in Colombia


  • Alexander Cotte Poveda


This paper analyses some determinants of urban violence in seven major Colombian cities. The empirical research is intended to explore variations in violence across these Colombian cities and the influence of these variations on Colombia's economic development. In this study, several econometric data panel models and various estimate types are applied to control heterogeneity across the cities and to address endogeneity problems among the explanatory variables. The results show that education, poverty, inequality and the labour market are strong predictors of homicide rates in the seven Colombian cities. The results also demonstrate that city-level homicide rates depend on the city's level of development and the tendency of urban violence to persist over time. The findings thus demonstrate that factors such as inequality, poverty, education and the labour market influence urban violence, thereby generating negative effects on Colombia's economic and social development.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Cotte Poveda, 2011. "Economic Development, Inequality and Poverty: An Analysis of Urban Violence in Colombia," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 453-468, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oxdevs:v:39:y:2011:i:4:p:453-468
    DOI: 10.1080/13600818.2011.620085

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alexander Cotte, Poveda, 2011. "Economic development and growth in Colombia: An empirical analysis with super-efficiency DEA and panel data models," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 154-164, December.
    2. Alexander Cotte Poveda, 2012. "Estimating Effectiveness of the Control of Violence and Socioeconomic Development in Colombia: An Application of Dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis and Data Panel Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 105(3), pages 343-366, February.
    3. Yearwood, Douglas L. & Koinis, Gerry, 2009. "Revisting Property Crime and Economic Conditions: An Exploratory Study to Identify Predictive Indicators beyond Unemployment Rates," MPRA Paper 16834, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Rodrigo R. Soares & Joana Naritomi, 2010. "Understanding High Crime Rates in Latin America: The Role of Social and Policy Factors," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons For and From Latin America, pages 19-55, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Cotte Poveda Alexander, 2011. "Socio-Economic Development and Violence: An Empirical Application for Seven Metropolitan Areas in Colombia," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-23, September.
    6. Luís M A Bettencourt & José Lobo & Deborah Strumsky & Geoffrey B West, 2010. "Urban Scaling and Its Deviations: Revealing the Structure of Wealth, Innovation and Crime across Cities," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 5(11), pages 1-9, November.
    7. Alejandro Gaviria Uribe & Carlos Eduardo Vélez, 2001. "Who Bears the Burden of Crime in Colombia," Informes de Investigación 3776, Fedesarrollo.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:hic:wpaper:196 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Andrea Otero, 2012. "Cali a comienzos del Siglo XXI: ¿Crisis o recuperación?," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 172, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. Enamorado, Ted & López-Calva, Luis F. & Rodríguez-Castelán, Carlos & Winkler, Hernán, 2016. "Income inequality and violent crime: Evidence from Mexico's drug war," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 128-143.
    4. Pazzona, Matteo, 2024. "Revisiting the Income Inequality-Crime Puzzle," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 176(C).
    5. Baomin Dong & Peter H Egger & Yibei Guo, 2020. "Is poverty the mother of crime? Evidence from homicide rates in China," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(5), pages 1-22, May.
    6. Mario COCCIA, 2018. "Violent crime driven by income Inequality between countries," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 33-55, March.
    7. Adenuga Fabian Adekoya & Nor Azam Abdul Razak, 2018. "Unemployment and Violence: ARDL Endogeneity Approach. (Desempleo y violencia: Enfoque de endogeneidad ARDL)," Ensayos Revista de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Economia, vol. 0(2), pages 155-176, October.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models


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