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Tournament behaviour in Malaysian managed funds

  • Vikash Ramiah
  • Imad Moosa
  • Ben O'Neill
  • Milica Backulja
  • Amel Jacoub
  • Terry Hallahan
  • John Vaz
Registered author(s):

    Purpose – The structure of the Malaysian fund market presents a unique setting in which to examine behavioural and cultural differences in the performance of fund managers. The purpose of this paper is to utilise Taylor's extension of the tournament model of Brown et al. who argued that using an exogenous (endogenous) benchmark induces losing (winning) managers to gamble. This presents two competing testable hypotheses that are investigated in the current study. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a sample of Malaysian unit trusts covering the period 1982 to 2010, applying the non-parametric cross-product ratio methodology to test all Malaysian funds and determine whether there is empirical evidence of tournament behaviour. The authors separate Malaysian funds into two main categories (conventional and Islamic) to find out whether different fund types affect the behaviour of the funds as a whole. Findings – Overall, Taylor's theory does not hold in the Malaysian fund market, as conventional funds display tournament behaviour regardless of the benchmark used. However, Islamic funds do not display any significant tournament behaviour. Originality/value – The current study uses a non-parametric approach to look for evidence of tournament (gaming) behaviour in the performance of fund managers in Malaysia. In doing so, the authors extend the tournaments literature by examining the performance of three data sets pertaining to the performance and evidence of tournament behaviour in: all managed funds in Malaysia; Islamic funds; and conventional funds. A major motivation for choosing the Malaysian data of unit trusts is to investigate and examine the behaviour of funds operating in an economy that is an emerging market in the rapidly expanding Asian economy; is a market that has a reporting period in line with the calendar year; and is an economy with a strong presence of Islamic funds (Shariah) and Muslim population.

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    Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Managerial Finance.

    Volume (Year): 8 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 381-399

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    Handle: RePEc:eme:ijmfpp:v:8:y:2012:i:4:p:381-399
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    1. Ronald G. Ehrenberg & Michael L. Bognanno, 1988. "Do Tournaments Have Incentive Effects?," NBER Working Papers 2638, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Mark Grinblatt & Sheridan Titman, . "Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 23-88, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    3. Judith A. Chevalier & Glenn D. Ellison, 1995. "Risk Taking by Mutual Funds as a Response to Incentives," NBER Working Papers 5234, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Goriaev, Alexei P. & Palomino, Frédéric & Prat, Andrea, 2001. "Mutual Fund Tournament: Risk Taking Incentives Induced By Ranking Objectives," CEPR Discussion Papers 2794, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Hallahan, Terrence & Faff, Robert, 2009. "Tournament behavior in Australian superannuation funds: A non-parametric analysis," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 307-322.
    6. Jennifer Lynch Koski & Jeffrey Pontiff, 1999. "How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 791-816, 04.
    7. Brown, Stephen J, et al, 1992. "Survivorship Bias in Performance Studies," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 553-80.
    8. Carpenter, Jennifer N. & Lynch, Anthony W., 1999. "Survivorship bias and attrition effects in measures of performance persistence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 337-374, December.
    9. Basak, Suleyman & Pavlova, Anna & Shapiro, Alex, 2005. "Offsetting the Incentives: Risk Shifting and Benefits of Benchmarking in Money Management," CEPR Discussion Papers 5006, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Taylor, Jonathan, 2003. "Risk-taking behavior in mutual fund tournaments," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 373-383, March.
    11. Brown, Keith C & Harlow, W V & Starks, Laura T, 1996. " Of Tournaments and Temptations: An Analysis of Managerial Incentives in the Mutual Fund Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 85-110, March.
    12. Mark M. Carhart & Jennifer N. Carpenter & Anthony W. Lynch & David K. Musto, 2002. "Mutual Fund Survivorship," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(5), pages 1439-1463.
    13. Erik R. Sirri & Peter Tufano, 1998. "Costly Search and Mutual Fund Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1589-1622, October.
    14. Goetzmann, William N & Peles, Nadav, 1997. "Cognitive Dissonance and Mutual Fund Investors," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 145-58, Summer.
    15. Busse, Jeffrey A., 2001. "Another Look at Mutual Fund Tournaments," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(01), pages 53-73, March.
    16. Guercio, Diane Del & Tkac, Paula A., 2002. "The Determinants of the Flow of Funds of Managed Portfolios: Mutual Funds vs. Pension Funds," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(04), pages 523-557, December.
    17. Orszag, Jonathan M., 1994. "A new look at incentive effects and golf tournaments," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 77-88, September.
    18. Berkowitz, Michael K. & Kotowitz, Yehuda, 2000. "Investor risk evaluation in the determination of management incentives in the mutual fund industry," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 365-387, November.
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