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Convergence of Income across Pennsylvania Counties


  • David A. Latzko

    () (Pennsylvania State University at York)


The neoclassical growth model implies that if two economies have the same preferences and technology, the poorer country will tend to grow faster in per capita terms. The relatively homogeneous counties of Pennsylvania provide an excellent test of the model's convergence predictions. There is no evidence of absolute convergence of income levels among Pennsylvania counties. The divergence between the very highest and very lowest income counties is due to changes in relative county wages. I utilize a set of panel data to properly account for individual effects, and find a conditional convergence rate of 2 percent.

Suggested Citation

  • David A. Latzko, 2002. "Convergence of Income across Pennsylvania Counties," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 28(4), pages 499-508, Fall.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:28:y:2002:i:4:p:499-508

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Barro, Robert J & Mankiw, N Gregory & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 103-115, March.
    2. Lee, Kevin & Pesaran, M Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1997. "Growth and Convergence in Multi-country Empirical Stochastic Solow Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 357-392, July-Aug..
    3. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    4. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    5. Paul Evans, 1997. "How Fast Do Economies Converge?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 219-225, May.
    6. Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996. "Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-389, September.
    7. Dowrick, Steve & Nguyen, Duc-Tho, 1989. "OECD Comparative Economic Growth 1950-85: Catch-Up and Convergence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1010-1030, December.
    8. Kevin Lee & M. Hashem Pesaran & Ron Smith, "undated". "Growth and Convergence in a Multi-County empirical Stochastic Solow Model," Discussion Papers in Economics 96/14, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    9. Paul M. Romer, 1994. "The Origins of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 3-22, Winter.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gyawali, Buddhi & Fraser, Rory & Bukenya, James & Schelhas, John, 2008. "Income Convergence in a Rural, Majority African-American Region," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 38(1), pages 45-65.
    2. Gyawali, Buddhi Raj & Fraser, Rory & Banerjee, Ban & Bukenya, James O., 2009. "Income Convergence and Growth in Alabama: Evidence from Sub-county Level Data," 2009 Annual Meeting, January 31-February 3, 2009, Atlanta, Georgia 46713, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.

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    JEL classification:

    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials


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