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Children's Work and Mothers' Work--What is the Connection?

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  • DeGraff, Deborah S.
  • Levison, Deborah

Abstract

Summary This paper examines the relationship between the employment of children and their mothers, with the aim of informing discussion on efforts to reduce child labor in Brazil. The analysis builds on the largely separate literatures on children's time use and mothers' work in two ways--by examining characteristics of employment which are often not available in survey data, and by modeling both children's work and mothers' employment. The results suggest that the relationship between children's and mothers' work is complex, with substantial evidence of positive correlation. The findings are consistent with the argument that anti-poverty programs that target women's employment could result in increased child labor. This possibility warrants further analysis in order to better inform policy regarding child labor.

Suggested Citation

  • DeGraff, Deborah S. & Levison, Deborah, 2009. "Children's Work and Mothers' Work--What is the Connection?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1569-1587, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:37:y:2009:i:9:p:1569-1587
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    2. Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
    3. Schultz, T Paul, 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-488, April.
    4. Sonia Bhalotra & Christopher Heady, 2003. "Child Farm Labor: The Wealth Paradox," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 197-227, December.
    5. Levison, Deborah & Moe, Karine S. & Marie Knaul, Felicia, 2001. "Youth Education and Work in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 167-188, January.
    6. Gertler, Paul & Glewwe, Paul, 1992. "The Willingness to Pay for Education for Daughters in Contrast to Sons: Evidence from Rural Peru," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(1), pages 171-188, January.
    7. Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1993. "Labor market opportunities and intrafamily time allocation in rural households in South Asia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 277-310, April.
    8. Binder, Melissa & Scrogin, David, 1999. "Labor Force Participation and Household Work of Urban Schoolchildren in Mexico: Characteristics and Consequences," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 123-154, October.
    9. Mueller, Eva, 1984. "The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-3), pages 329-360.
    10. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-656, April.
    11. Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-367, May.
    12. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 27872, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2013. "Mothers’ Employment and their Children’s Schooling: A Joint Multilevel Analysis for India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 183-195.

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