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The Willingness to Pay for Education for Daughters in Contrast to Sons: Evidence from Rural Peru


  • Gertler, Paul
  • Glewwe, Paul


In most of the developing world the education of women lags behind that of men. This could come about from a lack of parental desire for educated daughters or from a perception by the parents that there is a lower net return to education for girls. The relation between gender and education in rural Peru is explored using data from the 1985-86 Peru Living Standards Survey. A model of educational choice is developed. The estimated demand functions are used to assess the impact of user fees on demand and revenues. The empirical evidence indicates that parents are more willing to pay for reduced travel time to secondary school for boys than for girls. However, parents are willing to pay increased fees for girls' schooling sufficient to generate teachers' salaries. Copyright 1992 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Gertler, Paul & Glewwe, Paul, 1992. "The Willingness to Pay for Education for Daughters in Contrast to Sons: Evidence from Rural Peru," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(1), pages 171-188, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:6:y:1992:i:1:p:171-88

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Najam us Saqib, 2004. "Willingness to Pay for Primary Education in Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 27-51.
    2. World Bank, 2003. "Out-of-School Children and Youth in the Philippines : Issues and Opportunities," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14406, The World Bank.
    3. Okuneye Babatunde A & Obasan Kehinde A, 2014. "Determinants of Demand for Primary Education in Nigeria," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(2), pages 44-51, February.
    4. DeGraff, Deborah S. & Levison, Deborah, 2009. "Children's Work and Mothers' Work--What is the Connection?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1569-1587, September.
    5. Ira N. Gang & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2000. "Is Child like Parent? Educational Attainment and Ethnic Origin," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(3), pages 550-569.
    6. Pushkar Maitra, 2003. "Schooling and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 129-153.
    7. King, Elizabeth M., 1996. "Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 213-230, June.
    8. Claudio Sapelli & Arístides Torche, 2002. "Subsidios al Alumno o a la Escuela: Efectos sobre la Elección de Colegios," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 39(117), pages 175-202.
    9. Spohr, Chris A., 2003. "Formal schooling and workforce participation in a rapidly developing economy: evidence from "compulsory" junior high school in Taiwan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 291-327, April.
    10. Caren A. Grown, 2006. "Quick Impact Initiatives For Gender Equality: A Menu of Options," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_462, Levy Economics Institute.
    11. Maria Heracleous & Mario González & Paul Winters, 2016. "Conditional Cash Transfers and Schooling Decisions: Evidence from Urban Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 95639, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. Ira N. Gang, 1996. "Who Matters Most? The Effect of Parent's Schooling on Children's Schooling," Departmental Working Papers 199613, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    13. Mangyo, Eiji, 2008. "Who benefits more from higher household consumption? The intra-household allocation of nutrients in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 296-312, June.
    14. Katy Cornwell & Brett Inder & Pushkar Maitra & Anu Rammohan, 2005. "Household Composition and Schooling of Rural South African Children: Sibling Synergy and Migrant Effects," Monash Economics Working Papers 22/05, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    15. Alderman, Harold & King, Elizabeth M., 1998. "Gender differences in parental investment in education," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 453-468, December.
    16. Musharraf Cyan & Michael Price & Mark Rider & Stephanie J. Roberts, 2017. "Does a Modest Stipend Encourage Girls to Attend School beyond the 5th Class: Evidence from the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1707, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    17. Gee, Kevin A., 2015. "Achieving gender equality in learning outcomes: Evidence from a non-formal education program in Bangladesh," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 207-216.

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