Bus congestion, optimal infrastructure investment and the choice of a fare collection system in dedicated bus corridors
Microeconomic optimisation of scheduled public transport operations has traditionally focused on finding optimal values for the frequency of service, capacity of vehicles, number of lines and distance between stops. In addition, however, there exist other elements in the system that present a trade-off between the interests of users and operators that have not received attention in the literature, such as the optimal selection of a fare payment system and a designed running speed (i.e., the cruising speed that buses maintain in between two consecutive stops). Alternative fare payment methods (e.g., on-board and off-board, payment by cash, magnetic strip or smart card) have different boarding times and capital costs, with the more efficient systems such as a contactless smart card imposing higher amounts of capital investment. Based on empirical data from several Bus Rapid Transit systems around the world, we also find that there is a positive relationship between infrastructure cost per kilometre and commercial speed (including stops), achieved by the buses, which we further postulate as a linear relationship between infrastructure investment and running speed. Given this context, we develop a microeconomic model for the operation of a bus corridor that minimises total cost (users and operator) and has five decision variables: frequency, capacity of vehicles, station spacing, fare payment system and running speed, thus extending the traditional framework. Congestion, induced by bus frequency, plays an important role in the design of the system, as queues develop behind high demand bus stops when the frequency is high. We show that (i) an off-board fare payment system is the most cost effective in the majority of circumstances; (ii) bus congestion results in decreased frequency while fare and bus capacity increase, and (iii) the optimal running speed grows with the logarithm of demand.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
Issue (Month): 5 (June)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/548/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/supportfaq.cws_home/regional|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Danielis, Romeo & Marcucci, Edoardo, 2002. "Bottleneck road congestion pricing with a competing railroad service," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 379-388, September.
- Akçelik, Rahmi & Rouphail, Nagui M., 1993. "Estimation of delays at traffic signals for variable demand conditions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 109-131, April.
- Leiva, Carola & Muñoz, Juan Carlos & Giesen, Ricardo & Larrain, Homero, 2010. "Design of limited-stop services for an urban bus corridor with capacity constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1186-1201, December.
- Fernández L., J. Enrique & de Cea Ch., Joaquin & de Grange C., Louis, 2005. "Production costs, congestion, scope and scale economies in urban bus transportation corridors," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 383-403, June.
- Cortés, Cristián E. & Jara-Díaz, Sergio & Tirachini, Alejandro, 2011. "Integrating short turning and deadheading in the optimization of transit services," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 419-434, June.
- Mohring, Herbert, 1972. "Optimization and Scale Economies in Urban Bus Transportation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 591-604, September.
- Oldfield, R. H. & Bly, P. H., 1988. "An analytic investigation of optimal bus size," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 319-337, October.
- Kraus, Marvin, 1991. "Discomfort externalities and marginal cost transit fares," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 249-259, March.
- Ian W. H. Parry & Kenneth A. Small, 2009.
"Should Urban Transit Subsidies Be Reduced?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 700-724, June.
- Parry, Ian W.H. & Small, Kenneth, 2007. "Should Urban Transit Subsidies Be Reduced?," Discussion Papers dp-07-38, Resources For the Future.
- Ian W.H. Parry & Kenneth A. Small, 2007. "Should Urban Transit Subsidies Be Reduced?," Working Papers 060723, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
- Sergio Jara-DÃaz & Antonio Gschwender, 2003. "Towards a general microeconomic model for the operation of public transport," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(4), pages 453-469, July.
- Sergio R. Jara-Díaz & Antonio Gschwender, 2003. "From the Single Line Model to the Spatial Structure of Transit Services: Corridors or Direct?," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 37(2), pages 261-277, May.
- Shyue Koong Chang & Schonfeld, Paul M., 1991. "Multiple period optimization of bus transit systems," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 453-478, December.
- Tirachini, Alejandro & Hensher, David A. & Jara-Díaz, Sergio R., 2010. "Restating modal investment priority with an improved model for public transport analysis," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 1148-1168, November.
- Kijung Ahn, 2009. "Road Pricing and Bus Service Policies," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 43(1), pages 25-53, January.
- Glaister, Stephen, 1974. "Generalised Consumer Surplus and Public Transport Pricing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 84(336), pages 849-67, December.
- Delle Site, Paolo & Filippi, Francesco, 1998. "Service optimization for bus corridors with short-turn strategies and variable vehicle size," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 19-38, January.
- Glaister, Stephen & Lewis, Davis, 1978. "An integrated fares policy for transport in London," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 341-355, June.
- David Hensher & Thomas Golob, 2008. "Bus rapid transit systems: a comparative assessment," Transportation, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 501-518, July.
- Alejandro Tirachini & Cristián Cortés & Sergio Jara-Díaz, 2011. "Optimal design and benefits of a short turning strategy for a bus corridor," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 169-189, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:45:y:2011:i:5:p:828-844. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.