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Integrating short turning and deadheading in the optimization of transit services

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  • Cortés, Cristián E.
  • Jara-Díaz, Sergio
  • Tirachini, Alejandro

Abstract

Urban transit demand exhibits peaks in time and space, which can be efficiently served by means of different fleets, increasing frequencies in those groups of stops with larger passenger inflow. In this paper we develop a model that combines short turning and deadheading in an integrated strategy for a single transit line, where the optimization variables are both of a continuous and discrete nature: frequencies within and outside the high demand zone, vehicle capacities, and those stations where the strategy begins and ends. We show that closed solutions can be obtained for frequencies in some cases, which resembles the classical "square root rule". Unlike the existing literature that compares different strategies with a given normal operation (no strategy - single frequency), we use an optimized base case, in order to assess the potential benefits of the integrated strategy on a fair basis. We found that the integrated strategy can be justified in many cases with mixed load patterns, where unbalances within and between directions are observed. In general, the short turning strategy may yield large benefits in terms of total cost reductions, while low benefits are associated with deadheading, due to the extra cost of running empty vehicles in some sections.

Suggested Citation

  • Cortés, Cristián E. & Jara-Díaz, Sergio & Tirachini, Alejandro, 2011. "Integrating short turning and deadheading in the optimization of transit services," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 419-434, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:45:y:2011:i:5:p:419-434
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mohring, Herbert, 1972. "Optimization and Scale Economies in Urban Bus Transportation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 591-604, September.
    2. Eberlein, Xu Jun & Wilson, Nigel H. M. & Barnhart, Cynthia & Bernstein, David, 1998. "The real-time deadheading problem in transit operations control," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 77-100, February.
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    6. Alejandro Tirachini & Cristián Cortés & Sergio Jara-Díaz, 2011. "Optimal design and benefits of a short turning strategy for a bus corridor," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 169-189, January.
    7. Leiva, Carola & Muñoz, Juan Carlos & Giesen, Ricardo & Larrain, Homero, 2010. "Design of limited-stop services for an urban bus corridor with capacity constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1186-1201, December.
    8. Vijayaraghavan, T. A. S. & Anantharamaiah, K. M., 1995. "Fleet assignment strategies in urban transportation using express and partial services," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 157-171, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tirachini, Alejandro & Hensher, David A., 2011. "Bus congestion, optimal infrastructure investment and the choice of a fare collection system in dedicated bus corridors," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 828-844, June.
    2. Ibarra-Rojas, O.J. & Delgado, F. & Giesen, R. & Muñoz, J.C., 2015. "Planning, operation, and control of bus transport systems: A literature review," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 38-75.
    3. Alejandro Tirachini & David Hensher & Michiel Bliemer, 2014. "Accounting for travel time variability in the optimal pricing of cars and buses," Transportation, Springer, vol. 41(5), pages 947-971, September.
    4. Chen, Jingxu & Liu, Zhiyuan & Zhu, Senlai & Wang, Wei, 2015. "Design of limited-stop bus service with capacity constraint and stochastic travel time," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 1-15.
    5. Nayan, Ashish & Wang, David Z.W., 2017. "Optimal bus transit route packaging in a privatized contracting regime," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 146-157.

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