IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/riibaf/v48y2019icp143-155.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Modelling volatility of cryptocurrencies using Markov-Switching GARCH models

Author

Listed:
  • Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
  • Zekokh, Timur

Abstract

This paper aims to select the best model or set of models for modelling volatility of the four most popular cryptocurrencies, i.e. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple and Litecoin. More than 1000 GARCH models are fitted to the log returns of the exchange rates of each of these cryptocurrencies to estimate a one-step ahead prediction of Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) on a rolling window basis. The best model or superior set of models is then chosen by backtesting VaR and ES as well as using a Model Confidence Set (MCS) procedure for their loss functions. The results imply that using standard GARCH models may yield incorrect VaR and ES predictions, and hence result in ineffective risk-management, portfolio optimisation, pricing of derivative securities etc. These could be improved by using instead the model specifications allowing for asymmetries and regime switching suggested by our analysis, from which both investors and regulators can benefit.

Suggested Citation

  • Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Zekokh, Timur, 2019. "Modelling volatility of cryptocurrencies using Markov-Switching GARCH models," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 143-155.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:48:y:2019:i:c:p:143-155
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2018.12.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027553191830669X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Natalia Nolde & Johanna F. Ziegel, 2016. "Elicitability and backtesting: Perspectives for banking regulation," Papers 1608.05498, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2017.
    2. Asger Lunde & Peter R. Hansen, 2005. "A forecast comparison of volatility models: does anything beat a GARCH(1,1)?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(7), pages 873-889.
    3. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    4. Atilla Çifter & Alper Özün, 2007. "The Predictive Performance of Asymmetric Normal Mixture GARCH in Risk Management: Evidence from Turkey," Journal of BRSA Banking and Financial Markets, Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, vol. 1(1), pages 7-34.
    5. Robert Engle, 2004. "Risk and Volatility: Econometric Models and Financial Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 405-420, June.
    6. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US).
    7. Luc Bauwens & Arie Preminger & Jeroen V. K. Rombouts, 2010. "Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH model," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 13(2), pages 218-244, July.
    8. Michael McAleer & Bernardo da Veiga, 2008. "Single-index and portfolio models for forecasting value-at-risk thresholds," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(3), pages 217-235.
    9. Sebastian Bayer & Timo Dimitriadis, 2018. "Regression Based Expected Shortfall Backtesting," Papers 1801.04112, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2019.
    10. Sander Barendse, 2017. "Interquantile Expectation Regression," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 17-034/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Peter R. Hansen & Asger Lunde & James M. Nason, 2011. "The Model Confidence Set," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(2), pages 453-497, March.
    12. Andrew J. Patton & Johanna F. Ziegel & Rui Chen, 2017. "Dynamic Semiparametric Models for Expected Shortfall (and Value-at-Risk)," Papers 1707.05108, arXiv.org.
    13. Franc Klaassen, 2002. "Improving GARCH volatility forecasts with regime-switching GARCH," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 363-394.
    14. McNeil, Alexander J. & Frey, Rudiger, 2000. "Estimation of tail-related risk measures for heteroscedastic financial time series: an extreme value approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 271-300, November.
    15. Robert F. Engle & Simone Manganelli, 2004. "CAViaR: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk by Regression Quantiles," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 367-381, October.
    16. Dueker, Michael J, 1997. "Markov Switching in GARCH Processes and Mean-Reverting Stock-Market Volatility," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(1), pages 26-34, January.
    17. Timo Dimitriadis & Sebastian Bayer, 2017. "A Joint Quantile and Expected Shortfall Regression Framework," Papers 1704.02213, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2017.
    18. Henry, Ólan T., 2009. "Regime switching in the relationship between equity returns and short-term interest rates in the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 405-414, February.
    19. Fantazzini, Dean & Nigmatullin, Erik & Sukhanovskaya, Vera & Ivliev, Sergey, 2016. "Everything you always wanted to know about bitcoin modelling but were afraid to ask. I," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 44, pages 5-24.
    20. Christoffersen, Peter F, 1998. "Evaluating Interval Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 841-862, November.
    21. Markus Haas, 2004. "A New Approach to Markov-Switching GARCH Models," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 2(4), pages 493-530.
    22. Gonzalez-Rivera, Gloria & Lee, Tae-Hwy & Mishra, Santosh, 2004. "Forecasting volatility: A reality check based on option pricing, utility function, value-at-risk, and predictive likelihood," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 629-645.
    23. Emese Lazar & Carol Alexander, 2006. "Normal mixture GARCH(1,1): applications to exchange rate modelling," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(3), pages 307-336.
    24. Zakoian, Jean-Michel, 1994. "Threshold heteroskedastic models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 931-955, September.
    25. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    26. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    27. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Nikitas Pittis & Nicola Spagnolo, 2003. "IGARCH models and structural breaks," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(12), pages 765-768.
    28. Bauwens, Luc & De Backer, Bruno & Dufays, Arnaud, 2014. "A Bayesian method of change-point estimation with recurrent regimes: Application to GARCH models," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 207-229.
    29. repec:eee:ecolet:v:158:y:2017:i:c:p:3-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    30. repec:eee:finlet:v:16:y:2016:i:c:p:85-92 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. Wilfling, Bernd, 2009. "Volatility regime-switching in European exchange rates prior to monetary unification," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 240-270, March.
    32. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Nomikos, Nikos K. & Pouliasis, Panos K., 2008. "A Markov regime switching approach for hedging energy commodities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1970-1983, September.
    33. Jamal Bouoiyour & Refk Selmi, 2016. "Bitcoin: a beginning of a new phase?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(3), pages 1430-1440.
    34. repec:eee:intfor:v:34:y:2018:i:4:p:733-747 is not listed on IDEAS
    35. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean‐Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228, July.
    36. repec:gam:jjrfmx:v:10:y:2017:i:4:p:17-:d:113895 is not listed on IDEAS
    37. Cai, Jun, 1994. "A Markov Model of Switching-Regime ARCH," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 309-316, July.
    38. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    39. Martin T. Bohl & Christian A. Salm & Bernd Wilfling, 2011. "Do individual index futures investors destabilize the underlying spot market?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(1), pages 81-101, January.
    40. Bollerslev, Tim, 1987. "A Conditionally Heteroskedastic Time Series Model for Speculative Prices and Rates of Return," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 542-547, August.
    41. Hamilton, James D. & Susmel, Raul, 1994. "Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and changes in regime," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 307-333.
    42. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Shaw, Charles, 2018. "Conditional heteroskedasticity in crypto-asset returns," MPRA Paper 90437, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cryptocurrencies; Volatility; Markov-switching; GARCH;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:48:y:2019:i:c:p:143-155. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ribaf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.