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On the risk premium in Nordic electricity futures prices


  • Lucia, Julio J.
  • Torró, Hipòlit


This paper examines empirically the relationship between electricity spot and futures prices, by analysing a decade of data for a set of short term-to-maturity futures contracts traded in the Nordic Power Exchange. It is found that, on average, there are significant positive risk premiums in short-term electricity futures prices. The significance and size of the premiums, however, varies seasonally over the year; whereas it is greatest during winter, it is zero in summer. It is also found that time-varying risk premiums are significantly related to unexpectedly low reservoir levels. Furthermore, before the unprecedented supply-shock that hit the market around the end of year 2002, the risk premiums were related to the variance and the skewness of future spot prices.

Suggested Citation

  • Lucia, Julio J. & Torró, Hipòlit, 2011. "On the risk premium in Nordic electricity futures prices," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 750-763, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:20:y:2011:i:4:p:750-763

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nils-Henrik M. von der Fehr, Eirik S. Amundsen and Lars Bergman, 2005. "The Nordic Market: Signs of Stress?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 71-98.
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    4. Hendrik Bessembinder & Michael L. Lemmon, 2002. "Equilibrium Pricing and Optimal Hedging in Electricity Forward Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1347-1382, June.
    5. Bystrom, Hans N. E., 2005. "Extreme value theory and extremely large electricity price changes," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 41-55.
    6. Goto, Mika & Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2004. "Understanding Electricity Price Volatility within and across Markets," Working Paper Series 2004-12, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    7. Francis A. Longstaff & Ashley W. Wang, 2004. "Electricity Forward Prices: A High-Frequency Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1877-1900, August.
    8. Cox, John C. & Ingersoll, Jonathan Jr. & Ross, Stephen A., 1981. "The relation between forward prices and futures prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 321-346, December.
    9. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1987. "Commodity Futures Prices: Some Evidence on Forecast Power, Premiums,and the Theory of Storage," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 55-73, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Benth, Fred Espen & Biegler-König, Richard & Kiesel, Rüdiger, 2013. "An empirical study of the information premium on electricity markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 55-77.
    2. Weron, Rafał & Zator, Michał, 2014. "Revisiting the relationship between spot and futures prices in the Nord Pool electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 178-190.
    3. Almut E. D. Veraart & Luitgard A. M. Veraart, 2013. "Risk premia in energy markets," CREATES Research Papers 2013-02, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    4. Beatriz Martínez, Beatriz Martínez & Hipòlit Torró, Hipòlit Torró, 2016. "Anatomy of Risk Premium in UK Natural Gas Futures," ESP: Energy Scenarios and Policy 232212, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    5. Fleten, Stein-Erik & Hagen, Liv Aune & Nygård, Maria Tandberg & Smith-Sivertsen, Ragnhild & Sollie, Johan M., 2015. "The overnight risk premium in electricity forward contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 293-300.
    6. Asche, Frank & Misund, Bard & Oglend, Atle, 2015. "Production Risk and the Futures Price Risk Premium?," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2015/13, University of Stavanger.
    7. Stefan Trück & Rafał Weron, 2016. "Convenience Yields and Risk Premiums in the EU‐ETS—Evidence from the Kyoto Commitment Period," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(6), pages 587-611, June.
    8. Islyaev, Suren & Date, Paresh, 2015. "Electricity futures price models: Calibration and forecasting," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 247(1), pages 144-154.
    9. George Daskalakis, Lazaros Symeonidis, Raphael N. Markellos, 2015. "Electricity futures prices in an emissions constrained economy: Evidence from European power markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    10. Asche, Frank & Misund, Bård & Oglend, Atle, 2016. "Determinants of the Atlantic salmon futures risk premium," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 6-17.
    11. Debbie Dupuis, Geneviève Gauthier, and Fréderic Godin, 2016. "Short-term Hedging for an Electricity Retailer," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
    12. Egil Ferkingstad & Anders L{o}land, 2014. "Coping with area price risk in electricity markets: Forecasting Contracts for Difference in the Nordic power market," Papers 1406.6862,


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