IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/rensus/v72y2017icp1233-1240.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Pakistan: Dynamic causality analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Mirza, Faisal Mehmood
  • Kanwal, Afra

Abstract

This paper explores the presence of dynamic causality between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for Pakistan. We first test for the presence of bi-variate long run relationships between these variables using Johansen-Julius co-integration test. The robustness of the long-run relationship results has been examined using ARDL approach to cointegration. Existence of Grangers’ long run, short run and strong causalities has been studied in a VECM framework. The short run, long run and strong Granger causality results indicate the presence of bidirectional causalities between energy consumption, economic growth and the CO2 emissions. Implications of the results suggest that government should focus on building resources for ensuring adequate energy supplies in the economy by gradually increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the overall energy mix. Footprints of Denmark, Norway and Germany in Europe and Mauritius in Africa can be followed who have gradually increased energy production from renewable resources over the years. Furthermore, emission abatement activities should be made the central agenda in energy and environmental policies of Pakistan for reduction in damages associated with CO2 emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Kanwal, Afra, 2017. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Pakistan: Dynamic causality analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 1233-1240.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:72:y:2017:i:c:p:1233-1240
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.10.081
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403211630689X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ahmed, Mumtaz & Azam, Muhammad, 2016. "Causal nexus between energy consumption and economic growth for high, middle and low income countries using frequency domain analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 653-678.
    2. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 3220-3225, December.
    3. Yuan, Jia-Hai & Kang, Jian-Gang & Zhao, Chang-Hong & Hu, Zhao-Guang, 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 3077-3094, November.
    4. Abul Masih & Rumi Masih, 1998. "A multivariate cointegrated modelling approach in testing temporal causality between energy consumption, real income and prices with an application to two Asian LDCs," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(10), pages 1287-1298.
    5. Azam Chaudhry, 2010. "A Panel Data Analysis of Electricity Demand in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 15(Special E), pages 75-106, September.
    6. Pao, Hsiao-Tien & Tsai, Chung-Ming, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7850-7860, December.
    7. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Central America: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-216.
    8. Rehana Siddiqui & Hafiz Hanzla Jalil & Muhammad Nasir & Wasim Shahid Malik & Mahmood Khalid, 2008. "The Cost of Unserved Energy: Evidence from Selected Industrial Cities of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(3), pages 227-246.
    9. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    10. Zhang, Xing-Ping & Cheng, Xiao-Mei, 2009. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions, and economic growth in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(10), pages 2706-2712, August.
    11. Jahangir Alam, Mohammad & Ara Begum, Ismat & Buysse, Jeroen & Van Huylenbroeck, Guido, 2012. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 217-225.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 473-479.
    13. Cifter, Atilla & Ozun, Alper, 2007. "Multi-scale Causality between Energy Consumption and GNP in Emerging Markets: Evidence from Turkey," MPRA Paper 2483, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Ben Youssef, Adel & M'henni, Hatem & Rault, Christophe, 2012. "Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 342-349.
    15. Neil R. Ericsson & James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Distributions of error correction tests for cointegration," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 285-318, June.
    16. Ilhan Ozturk & Muhittin Kaplan & Huseyin Kalyoncu, 2013. "The Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption and GDP in Turkey," Energy & Environment, , vol. 24(5), pages 727-734, September.
    17. Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye & Sana Riaz, 2008. "Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 45-58, Jul-Dec.
    18. Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
    19. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    20. Souhila EDDRIEF-CHERFI & Baghdad KOURBALI, 2012. "Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Algeria: Cointegration and Causality Analysis," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 2(4), pages 238-249.
    21. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa: A trivariate causality test," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 635-640, September.
    22. Ismail, Mohd Adib & Mawar, Murni Yunus, 2012. "Energy use, emissions, economic growth and trade: A Granger non-causality evidence for Malaysia," MPRA Paper 38473, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    23. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    24. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth nexus in Tanzania: An ARDL bounds testing approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 617-622, February.
    25. Neil R. Ericsson & James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Distributions of error correction tests for cointegration," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 285-318, June.
    26. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2003. "Energy consumption and GDP: causality relationship in G-7 countries and emerging markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 33-37, January.
    27. Rehana Siddiqui, 2004. "Energy and Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(2), pages 175-200.
    28. Hüseyin Kalyoncu & Faruk Gürsoy & Hasan Göcen, 2013. "Causality Relationship between GDP and Energy Consumption in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(1), pages 111-117.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Abdullah, Fahad Bin & Iqbal, Rizwan & Hyder, Syed Irfan & Jawaid, Mohammad, 2020. "Energy security indicators for Pakistan: An integrated approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    2. Rauf, Abdul & Zhang, Jin & Li, Jinkai & Amin, Waqas, 2018. "Structural changes, energy consumption and carbon emissions in China: Empirical evidence from ARDL bound testing model," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 194-206.
    3. Ehigiamusoe, Kizito Uyi & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2020. "The moderating role of energy consumption in the carbon emissions-income nexus in middle-income countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 261(C).
    4. Daniel Armeanu & Georgeta Vintilă & Jean Vasile Andrei & Ştefan Cristian Gherghina & Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi & Cristian Teodor, 2018. "Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(5), pages 1-28, May.
    5. Wang, Yun & Sun, Xiaohua & Wang, Baocai & Liu, Xiaoling, 2020. "Energy saving, GHG abatement and industrial growth in OECD countries: A green productivity approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C).
    6. Popescu, Gheorghe H. & Mieila, Mihai & Nica, Elvira & Andrei, Jean Vasile, 2018. "The emergence of the effects and determinants of the energy paradigm changes on European Union economy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 768-774.
    7. Acheampong, Alex O., 2018. "Economic growth, CO2 emissions and energy consumption: What causes what and where?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 677-692.
    8. Zhang, Wenwen & Chiu, Yi-Bin, 2020. "Do country risks influence carbon dioxide emissions? A non-linear perspective," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 206(C).
    9. Tao, Wang & Guang-shun, He & Jing, Guo & Yue, Yin & Lin-lin, Li, 2020. "Energy consumption and economic growth in China’s marine economic zones-an estimation based on partial linear model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 205(C).
    10. Odhiambo, Nicholas M, 2020. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Botswana: Empirical evidence from a disaggregated data," Working Papers 26649, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
    11. Zaidi, Syed Anees Haider & Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Hou, Fujun & Ashraf, Rana Umair, 2019. "Addressing the sustainable development through sustainable procurement: What factors resist the implementation of sustainable procurement in Pakistan?," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    12. Marques, António Cardoso & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Macedo, Daniela Pereira, 2019. "The impact of feed-in and capacity policies on electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Spain," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 159-168.
    13. Danish, & Wang, Bo & Wang, Zhaohua, 2018. "Imported technology and CO2 emission in China: Collecting evidence through bound testing and VECM approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 82(P3), pages 4204-4214.
    14. Raza, Syed Ali & Shah, Nida & Sharif, Arshian, 2019. "Time frequency relationship between energy consumption, economic growth and environmental degradation in the United States: Evidence from transportation sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 706-720.
    15. Yang, Lin & Yang, Yuantao & Zhang, Xian & Tang, Kai, 2018. "Whether China's industrial sectors make efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from production? - A decomposed decoupling analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 796-809.
    16. Wu, Wenqing & Ma, Xin & Zeng, Bo & Wang, Yong & Cai, Wei, 2018. "Application of the novel fractional grey model FAGMO(1,1,k) to predict China's nuclear energy consumption," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 165(PB), pages 223-234.
    17. Wang, Zhaohua & Danish, & Zhang, Bin & Wang, Bo, 2018. "The moderating role of corruption between economic growth and CO2 emissions: Evidence from BRICS economies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 506-513.
    18. Naif Dalish N. Alanazi & Zavyalov Dmitriy & Aleksandra G. Polyakova, 2020. "Estimating the Impact of Energy Consumption on Carbon Emissions Using Environmental Kuznets Curve," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(5), pages 608-614.
    19. Dehghan Shabani, Zahra & Shahnazi, Rouhollah, 2019. "Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, information and communications technology, and gross domestic product in Iranian economic sectors: A panel causality analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 1064-1078.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Energy consumption; CO2 emissions; Economic growth; Pakistan; Dynamic causality;

    JEL classification:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:72:y:2017:i:c:p:1233-1240. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.