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The Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption and GDP in Turkey


  • Ilhan Ozturk
  • Muhittin Kaplan
  • Huseyin Kalyoncu


This paper attempts to investigate the short-run and long-run relationship and causality between energy consumption and economic growth during 1960–2006 period for Turkey. Johansen and Juselius cointegration method and vector error correction model (VECM) have been employed to examine this issue. After finding cointegration among variables, a VECM is estimated and the Granger causality tests were carried out based on a VECM. The results have shown that there is no short-run causality in both energy consumption and GDP models. The results also confirmed that there is unidirectional long-run causality among variables of interest and the direction of long-run causality is running from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption. As a result, conservation hypothesis which postulates unidirectional causality from economic growth to energy consumption is confirmed for Turkey. Taken together, these empirical findings involve valuable information for policy makers.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilhan Ozturk & Muhittin Kaplan & Huseyin Kalyoncu, 2013. "The Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption and GDP in Turkey," Energy & Environment, , vol. 24(5), pages 727-734, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:engenv:v:24:y:2013:i:5:p:727-734

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eco:journ2:2017-06-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Hanan Naser, 2014. "Oil Market, Nuclear Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Emerging Economies," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(2), pages 288-296.
    3. Ahmed, Khalid & Bhattacharya, Mita & Qazi, Ahmer Qasim & Long, Wei, 2016. "Energy consumption in China and underlying factors in a changing landscape: Empirical evidence since the reform period," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 224-234.
    4. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ozturk, Ilhan & Afza, Talat & Ali, Amjad, 2013. "Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve in a global economy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 494-502.
    5. Cuma Bozkurt & Yusuf Akan, 2014. "Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption: The Turkish Case," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 484-494.
    6. Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Kanwal, Afra, 2017. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Pakistan: Dynamic causality analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 1233-1240.
    7. repec:eco:journ2:2018-02-16 is not listed on IDEAS


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