The early inception of labor market gender differences
This paper analyzes gender differences in jobs while in school using school-class-based samples, a setting in which education differences, "glass ceilings", and career interruptions due to parenthood are irrelevant. I find that in this early stage of life boys already earn substantially more than girls. The earnings gap cannot be explained by differences in participation rates and hours of work, nor by gender wage gaps within job types. It is entirely due to the fact that girls work more in job types with relatively low wages, in particular babysitting. During the period considered, 1984-2001, the gender patterns of jobs while in school largely remained unchanged.
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