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Framing and salience effects in tax evasion decisions – An experiment on underreporting and overdeducting

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  • Fochmann, Martin
  • Wolf, Nadja

Abstract

Using different controlled and incentivized experiments, we analyze whether taxpayers are more willing to evade taxes by underreporting positive income (e.g., business or nonbusiness income) than by overdeducting negative income (e.g., deductions, credits, or losses). We robustly observe an asymmetric tax evasion behavior. Specifically, individuals are less compliant in case of positive income. This result is robust to a variation in which the after-tax payoffs from the cases with positive and negative income are offset against each other – even though offsetting reduces the asymmetric effect significantly. In an experimental environment in which the interaction of positive and negative income reporting is made very saliently and in which we consequently expect that subjects decide on both tax evasion decisions jointly, the asymmetric effect vanishes. We therefore provide evidence that (1) tax evasion behavior is asymmetrically in case of positive and negative income reporting, (2) offsetting reduces this asymmetric effect and (3) the salience of income interaction plays an important role in tax evasion decisions.

Suggested Citation

  • Fochmann, Martin & Wolf, Nadja, 2019. "Framing and salience effects in tax evasion decisions – An experiment on underreporting and overdeducting," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 260-277.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:joepsy:v:72:y:2019:i:c:p:260-277
    DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2019.03.005
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    3. Engel, Christoph & Mittone, Luigi & Morreale, Azzurra, 2020. "Tax morale and fairness in conflict an experiment," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
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    5. Fochmann, Martin & Fochmann, Nadja & Kocher, Martin G. & Müller, Nadja, 2021. "Dishonesty and risk-taking: Compliance decisions of individuals and groups," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 185(C), pages 250-286.
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    7. Thiago Fonseca Morello & Luís Fernando Silva e Silva, 2023. "Garnering support for Pigouvian taxation with tax return: a lab experiment," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 25(2), pages 115-142, April.
    8. Blaufus, Kay & Milde, Michael & Schaefer, Marcel, 2022. "Saving at tax time: Do additional retroactive savings opportunities increase retirement savings?," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 272, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    9. Steinel, Wolfgang & Valtcheva, Kalina & Gross, Jörg & Celse, Jérémy & Max, Sylvain & Shalvi, Shaul, 2022. "(Dis)honesty in the face of uncertain gains or losses," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tax evasion; Cheating; Prospect theory; Behavioral taxation; Experimental economics;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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