IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jimfin/v28y2009i4p648-670.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Can investor heterogeneity be used to explain the cross-section of average stock returns in emerging markets?

Author

Listed:
  • Jung, Chan Shik
  • Lee, Dong Wook
  • Park, Kyung Suh

Abstract

This paper examines whether investor heterogeneity can be used for asset-pricing purposes in emerging markets. We pose this question, since the lack of transparency and greater uncertainty, which are typical of those markets, render it more likely that investors will disagree with each other and hold different portfolios, resulting in a mean-variance inefficient market portfolio. Consequently, we examine whether a heterogeneity-based factor can sufficiently augment the market portfolio, so that the two can function as multivariate proxies for the tangency portfolio. We test this hypothesis in the Korean stock market in which the measures of heterogeneity such as foreign ownership and institutional holdings are available for a large number of stocks over an extended period of time. We find that the heterogeneity-augmented two-factor model outperforms the CAPM one-factor and the Fama-French three-factor models. Consistent with the greater severity of investor heterogeneity in emerging markets, a developed market with comparable data availability, namely, Japan, shows similar but weaker test results.

Suggested Citation

  • Jung, Chan Shik & Lee, Dong Wook & Park, Kyung Suh, 2009. "Can investor heterogeneity be used to explain the cross-section of average stock returns in emerging markets?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 648-670, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:28:y:2009:i:4:p:648-670
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261-5606(09)00026-6
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 2000. "Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 565-613, April.
    2. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    3. Merton, Robert C, 1973. "An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(5), pages 867-887, September.
    4. Fama, Eugene F., 1996. "Multifactor Portfolio Efficiency and Multifactor Asset Pricing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(04), pages 441-465, December.
    5. Kang, Jun-Koo & Stulz, Rene M., 1997. "Why is there a home bias? An analysis of foreign portfolio equity ownership in Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 3-28, October.
    6. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 1998. "Value versus Growth: The International Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1975-1999, December.
    7. Karen K. Lewis, 1999. "Trying to Explain Home Bias in Equities and Consumption," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(2), pages 571-608, June.
    8. Ross, Stephen A, 1989. " Institutional Markets, Financial Marketing, and Financial Innovation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 541-556, July.
    9. Domowitz, Ian & Glen, Jack & Madhavan, Ananth, 1997. " Market Segmentation and Stock Prices: Evidence from an Emerging Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1059-1085, July.
    10. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian T. Lundblad & Stephan Siegel, 2011. "What Segments Equity Markets?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(12), pages 3841-3890.
    11. Ferson, Wayne E. & Sarkissian, Sergei & Simin, Timothy, 1999. "The alpha factor asset pricing model: A parable," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 49-68, February.
    12. Paul A. Gompers & Andrew Metrick, 2001. "Institutional Investors and Equity Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1), pages 229-259.
    13. Giannetti, Mariassunta & Simonov, Andrei, 2002. "Which Investors Fear Expropriation?," SIFR Research Report Series 10, Institute for Financial Research.
    14. Alexander, Gordon J & Eun, Cheol S & Janakiramanan, S, 1987. " Asset Pricing and Dual Listing on Foreign Capital Markets: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(1), pages 151-158, March.
    15. Hyuk Choe & Bong-Chan Kho & René M. Stulz, 2005. "Do Domestic Investors Have an Edge? The Trading Experience of Foreign Investors in Korea," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(3), pages 795-829.
    16. Errunza, Vihang & Losq, Etienne, 1985. " International Asset Pricing under Mild Segmentation: Theory and Test," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 105-124, March.
    17. Falkenstein, Eric G, 1996. " Preferences for Stock Characteristics as Revealed by Mutual Fund Portfolio Holdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 111-135, March.
    18. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    19. René M. Stulz, 2007. "The Limits of Financial Globalization," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 19(1), pages 8-15.
    20. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-1152, September.
    21. Jonathan B. Berk & Richard C. Green & Vasant Naik, 1999. "Optimal Investment, Growth Options, and Security Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(5), pages 1553-1607, October.
    22. Christian Leuz & Karl V. Lins & Francis E. Warnock, 2010. "Do Foreigners Invest Less in Poorly Governed Firms?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 3245-3285, March.
    23. Daniel, Kent & Hirshleifer, David & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2005. "Investor Psychology and Tests of Factor Pricing Models," Working Paper Series 2005-26, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    24. Roll, Richard, 1977. "A critique of the asset pricing theory's tests Part I: On past and potential testability of the theory," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 129-176, March.
    25. Merton, Robert C, 1987. " A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
    26. Ahearne, Alan G. & Griever, William L. & Warnock, Francis E., 2004. "Information costs and home bias: an analysis of US holdings of foreign equities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 313-336, March.
    27. Rene M. Stulz, 1999. "Globalization of Equity Markets and the Cost of Capital," NBER Working Papers 7021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    28. Kent Daniel, 2001. "Explaining the Cross-Section of Stock Returns in Japan: Factors or Characteristics?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 743-766, April.
    29. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    30. French, Kenneth R & Poterba, James M, 1991. "Investor Diversification and International Equity Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 222-226, May.
    31. Tesar, Linda L. & Werner, Ingrid M., 1995. "Home bias and high turnover," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 467-492, August.
    32. Stephen R. Foerster & G. Andrew Karolyi, 1999. "The Effects of Market Segmentation and Investor Recognition on Asset Prices: Evidence from Foreign Stocks Listing in the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 981-1013, June.
    33. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1996. " Multifactor Explanations of Asset Pricing Anomalies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 55-84, March.
    34. Stulz, Rene M & Wasserfallen, Walter, 1995. "Foreign Equity Investment Restrictions, Capital Flight, and Shareholder Wealth Maximization: Theory and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1019-1057.
    35. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Stulz, Rene M., 2003. "Are financial assets priced locally or globally?," Handbook of the Economics of Finance,in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 16, pages 975-1020 Elsevier.
    36. John M. Griffin, 2002. "Are the Fama and French Factors Global or Country Specific?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 783-803.
    37. Dahlquist, Magnus & Robertsson, Goran, 2001. "Direct foreign ownership, institutional investors, and firm characteristics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 413-440, March.
    38. Nishiotis, George P., 2004. "Do Indirect Investment Barriers Contribute to Capital Market Segmentation?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(03), pages 613-630, September.
    39. John M. Griffin & Xiuqing Ji & J. Spencer Martin, 2003. "Momentum Investing and Business Cycle Risk: Evidence from Pole to Pole," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2515-2547, December.
    40. Bailey, Warren & Jagtiani, Julapa, 1994. "Foreign ownership restrictions and stock prices in the Thai capital market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 57-87, August.
    41. Cooper, Ian & Kaplanis, Evi, 1994. "Home Bias in Equity Portfolios, Inflation Hedging, and International Capital Market Equilibrium," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 45-60.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hahn, Jaehoon & Yoon, Heebin, 2016. "Determinants of the cross-sectional stock returns in Korea: evaluating recent empirical evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 88-106.
    2. Kearney, Colm, 2012. "Emerging markets research: Trends, issues and future directions," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 159-183.
    3. Kang, Hyung Cheol & Lee, Dong Wook & Park, Kyung Suh, 2010. "Does the difference in valuation between domestic and foreign investors help explain their distinct holdings of domestic stocks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2886-2896, December.
    4. Anindya Chakrabarty & Anupam De & Gautam Bandyopadhyay, 2016. "Horizon heterogeneity, institutional constraint and managerial myopia: a multi-frequency perspective on ELSS," International Journal of Business Excellence, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 9(1), pages 18-47.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:28:y:2009:i:4:p:648-670. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30443 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.