Direct versus indirect standardization in risk adjustment
Direct and indirect standardization procedures aim at comparing differences in health or in health care expenditures between subgroups of the population after controlling for observable morbidity differences. There is a close analogy between this problem and the issue of risk adjustment in health insurance. Traditional methods of risk adjustment are analogous to indirect standardization. They are equivalent to the so-called conditional egalitarian mechanism in social choice. In general, they do not remove incentives for risk selection, even if the effect of non-morbidity variables is correctly taken into account. A method of risk adjustment based on direct standardization does remove the incentives for risk selection, but at the cost of violating a neutrality condition, stating that insurers should receive the same premium subsidy for all members of the same risk group. Direct standardization is equivalent to the egalitarian-equivalent (or proportional) mechanism in social choice. The conflict between removing incentives for risk selection and neutrality is unavoidable if the health expenditure function is not additively separable in the morbidity and efficiency variables.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- van de Ven, Wynand P. M. M. & Beck, Konstantin & Buchner, Florian & Chernichovsky, Dov & Gardiol, Lucien & Holly, Alberto & Lamers, Leida M. & Schokkaert, Erik & Shmueli, Amir & Spycher, Stephan & Van, 2003. "Risk adjustment and risk selection on the sickness fund insurance market in five European countries," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 75-98, July.
- Hugh Gravelle, 2003. "Measuring income related inequality in health: standardisation and the partial concentration index," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(10), pages 803-819.
- Erik Schokkaert & Geert Dhaene & Carine Van De Voorde, 1998. "Risk adjustment and the trade-off between efficiency and risk selection: an application of the theory of fair compensation," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(5), pages 465-480.
- Marc FLEURBAEY, 2006. "Health, equity and social welfare," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 83-84, pages 21-59.
- Bossert, Walter, 1995.
"Redistribution mechanisms based on individual characteristics,"
Mathematical Social Sciences,
Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-17, February.
- Bossert W., 1996. "Redistribution mechanisms based on individual characteristics," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 51-51, February.
- Bossert, W., 1993. "Redistribution Mechanisms Based on Individual Characteristics," Working Papers 9307, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics.
- Marc Fleurbaey & Walter Bossert, 1996. "Redistribution and compensation (*)," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 343-355.
- Schokkaert, Erik & Van de Voorde, Carine, 2004.
"Risk selection and the specification of the conventional risk adjustment formula,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1237-1259, November.
- Erik SCHOKKAERT & Carine VAN DE VOORDE, 2000. "Risk Selection and the Specification of the Conventional Risk Adjustment Formula," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces0011, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
- FLEURBAEY, Marc & SCHOKKAERT, Erik, .
"Unfair inequalities in health and health care,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-2141, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Iñigo Iturbe Ormaetxe, 1995.
"Redistribution And Individual Characteristics,"
Working Papers. Serie AD
1995-19, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Fleurbaey, Marc, 2012.
"Fairness, Responsibility, and Welfare,"
Oxford University Press, number 9780199653591, March.
- LUTTENS, Roland Iwan & VAN DE GAER, Dirk, .
"Lorenz dominance and non-welfaristic redistribution,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-1950, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Roland Luttens & Dirk gaer, 2007. "Lorenz Dominance and Non-welfaristic Redistribution," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 281-302, February.
- R.I. Luttens & D. Van De Gaer, 2004. "Lorenz dominance and non-welfaristic redistribution," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/225, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Joseph P. Newhouse, 1996. "Reimbursing Health Plans and Health Providers: Efficiency in Production versus Selection," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 1236-1263, September.
- Fleurbaey Marc, 1995. "Three Solutions for the Compensation Problem," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 505-521, April.
- van de Ven, Wynand P.M.M. & Beck, Konstantin & Van de Voorde, Carine & Wasem, Jurgen & Zmora, Irit, 2007. "Risk adjustment and risk selection in Europe: 6 years later," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(2-3), pages 162-179, October.
- Erik SCHOKKAERT & Carine VAN DE VOORDE, 2006. "Incentives for risk selection and omitted variables in the risk adjustment formula," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 83-84, pages 327-351.
- Van de ven, Wynand P.M.M. & Ellis, Randall P., 2000. "Risk adjustment in competitive health plan markets," Handbook of Health Economics, in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 755-845 Elsevier.
- Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2000. "Measuring and Testing for Inequity in the Delivery of Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 716-733.
- Hugh Gravelle & Matthew Sutton & Stephen Morris & Frank Windmeijer & Alastair Leyland & Chris Dibben & Mike Muirhead, 2003. "Modelling supply and demand influences on the use of health care: implications for deriving a needs-based capitation formula," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(12), pages 985-1004.
- Schokkaert, Erik & Van de Voorde, Carine, 2003. "Belgium: risk adjustment and financial responsibility in a centralised system," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 5-19, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:28:y:2009:i:2:p:361-374. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.