The price of protein: Review of land use and carbon footprints from life cycle assessments of animal food products and their substitutes
Animal husbandry, aquaculture and fishery have major impacts on the environment. In order to identify the range of impacts and the most important factors thereof, as well as to identify what are the main causes of the differences between products, we analysed 52 life cycle assessment studies (LCAs) of animal and vegetal sources of protein. Our analysis was focused only on land requirement and carbon footprints.
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- Flysjö, Anna & Henriksson, Maria & Cederberg, Christel & Ledgard, Stewart & Englund, Jan-Eric, 2011. "The impact of various parameters on the carbon footprint of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 104(6), pages 459-469, July.
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- Pelletier, Nathan & Pirog, Rich & Rasmussen, Rebecca, 2010. "Comparative life cycle environmental impacts of three beef production strategies in the Upper Midwestern United States," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 103(6), pages 380-389, July.
- Ellingsen, H. & Olaussen, J.O. & Utne, I.B., 2009. "Environmental analysis of the Norwegian fishery and aquaculture industry--A preliminary study focusing on farmed salmon," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 479-488, May.
- Haxsen, Gerhard, 2008. "Calculating costs of pig production with the InterPIG network," Arbeitsberichte aus der vTI-Agrarökonomie 04/2008, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries.
- Verge, X.P.C. & Dyer, J.A. & Desjardins, R.L. & Worth, D., 2007. "Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian dairy industry in 2001," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 683-693, June.
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- Vázquez-Rowe, Ian & Moreira, María Teresa & Feijoo, Gumersindo, 2012. "Environmental assessment of frozen common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) captured by Spanish fishing vessels in the Mauritanian EEZ," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 180-188, January.
- Thomassen, M.A. & van Calker, K.J. & Smits, M.C.J. & Iepema, G.L. & de Boer, I.J.M., 2008. "Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 96(1-3), pages 95-107, March.
- Stehfest, Elke & Berg, Maurits van den & Woltjer, Geert & Msangi, Siwa & Westhoek, Henk, 2013. "Options to reduce the environmental effects of livestock production – Comparison of two economic models," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 38-53.
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