Double-fortified salt reduces anemia, benefit:cost ratio is modestly favorable
Iron deficiency is very widespread, with adverse consequences for health and cognition. Iron supplementation is not popular for long-term use, and cereal fortification is not feasible where milling occurs locally. Double-fortified salt (DFS: using both iron and iodine) is an alternative. The study undertakes a literature survey to find the effect of DFS on hemoglobin, and then uses a previous algorithm to make calculations for India. The benefit:cost ratio was estimated as 2.4:1 if only the benefits to children and women were included, and between 4:1 and 5:1 if anemia levels for men also decreased. This is just a little lower than the median ratio estimated for iron fortification of cereal staples (6.7:1), for home fortification for children less than two (37:1), and for biofortificationÂ -Â breeding for high iron - of cereals (high, but no exact figure available). Double-fortified salt is therefore a good alternative for improving iron status in populations where fortification of other staple foods does not achieve desired coverage.
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- Stein, Alexander J. & Qaim, Matin & Meenakshi, J.V. & Nestel, Penelope & Sachdev, H.P.S. & Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., 2006.
"Potential Impacts of Iron Biofortification in India,"
Research in Development Economics and Policy (Discussion Paper Series)
8536, Universitaet Hohenheim, Department of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and Subtropics.
- Stein, Alexander J. & Meenakshi, J.V. & Qaim, Matin & Nestel, Penelope & Sachdev, H.P.S. & Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., 2008. "Potential impacts of iron biofortification in India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(8), pages 1797-1808, April.
- Edward Miguel & Michael Kremer, 2004. "Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(1), pages 159-217, 01.
- Meenakshi, J.V. & Johnson, Nancy & Manyong, Victor M. & de Groote, Hugo & Javelosa, Josyline & Yanggen, David & Naher, Firdousi & González Carolina & Garcia, James & Meng, Erika, 2007.
"How cost-effective is biofortification in combating micronutrient malnutrition?: An ex-ante assessment,"
HarvestPlus Working Papers
2, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Meenakshi, J.V. & Johnson, Nancy L. & Manyong, Victor M. & DeGroote, Hugo & Javelosa, Josyline & Yanggen, David R. & Naher, Firdousi & Gonzalez, Carolina & García, James & Meng, Erika, 2010. "How Cost-Effective is Biofortification in Combating Micronutrient Malnutrition? An Ex ante Assessment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 64-75, January.
- Matin Qaim & Alexander J. Stein & J. V. Meenakshi, 2007.
"Economics of biofortification,"
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(s1), pages 119-133, December.
- Qaim, Matin & Stein, Alexander J. & Meenakshi, J.V., 2006. "Economics of Biofortification," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25584, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Horton, S. & Ross, J., 2003. "The economics of iron deficiency," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 51-75, February.
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