Footprints of water and energy inputs in food production - Global perspectives
During the second half of the 20th century the global food production more than doubled and thus responded to the doubling of world population. But the gains in food production came at a cost, leaving a significant environmental footprint on the ecosystem. Global cropland, plantations and pastures expanded, with large increases in fossil energy, water, and fertilizer inputs, imprinting considerable footprint on the environment. Information from pre eminent publications such as Nature, Science, PNAS and scholarly journals is synthesized to assess the water and energy footprints of global food production. The data show that the footprints are significant, both locally, national and globally and have consequences for global food security and ecosystem health and productivity. The literature nearly agrees that global food production system generates considerable environmental footprints and the situation would likely get worrisome, as global population grows by 50% by 2050. Investments are needed today to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improve energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce the environmental footprint.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Khan, Shahbaz & Mushtaq, Shahbaz & Hanjra, Munir A. & Schaeffer, Jürgen, 2008. "Estimating potential costs and gains from an aquifer storage and recovery program in Australia," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(4), pages 477-488, April.
- Jayne, T. S. & Govereh, J. & Wanzala, M. & Demeke, M., 2003. "Fertilizer market development: a comparative analysis of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Zambia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 293-316, August.
- Costanza, Robert & d'Arge, Ralph & de Groot, Rudolf & Farber, Stephen & Grasso, Monica & Hannon, Bruce & Limburg, Karin & Naeem, Shahid & O'Neill, Robert V. & Paruelo, Jose, 1998. "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 3-15, April.
- Pannell, David J. & Malcolm, Bill & Kingwell, Ross S., 2000.
"Are we risking too much? Perspectives on risk in farm modelling,"
Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists,
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 23(1), June.
- Pannell, David J. & Malcolm, Bill & Kingwell, Ross S., 2000. "Are we risking too much? Perspectives on risk in farm modelling," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(1), pages 69-78, June.
- Renault, D. & Wallender, W. W., 2000. "Nutritional water productivity and diets," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 275-296, August.
- Janmaat, John, 2004. "Calculating the cost of irrigation induced soil salinization in the tungabhadra project," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(1), pages 81-96, July.
- Arnab K. Basu & Matin Qaim, 2007. "On the Adoption of Genetically Modified Seeds in Developing Countries and the Optimal Types of Government Intervention," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(3), pages 784-804.
- Narayanamoorthy, A. & Hanjra, Munir A., 2006. "Rural Infrastructure and Agricultural Output Linkages: A Study of 256 Indian Districts," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, vol. 61(3).
- Meijer, Karen & Boelee, Eline & Augustijn, Denie & Molen, Irna van der, 2006. "Impacts of concrete lining of irrigation canals on availability of water for domestic use in southern Sri Lanka," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 243-251, June.
- de Fraiture, Charlotte & Wichelns, D. & Rockstrom, J. & Kemp-Benedict, E. & Eriyagama, Nishadi & Gordon, L. J. & Hanjra, M. A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Huber-Lee, A. & Karlberg, L., 2007. "Looking ahead to 2050: scenarios of alternative investment approaches," IWMI Books, Reports H040196, International Water Management Institute.
- Kumar, M. Dinesh, 2005. "Impact of electricity prices and volumetric water allocation on energy and groundwater demand management:: analysis from Western India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 39-51, January.
- Khan, Shahbaz & Tariq, Rana & Yuanlai, Cui & Blackwell, J., 2006. "Can irrigation be sustainable?," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 87-99, February.
- Molden, David & Oweis, T. Y. & Pasquale, S. & Kijne, J. W. & Hanjra, M. A. & Bindraban, P. S. & Bouman, B. A. M. & Cook, S. & Erenstein, O. & Farahani, H. & Hachum, A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Mahoo, H. & Na, 2007. "Pathways for increasing agricultural water productivity," IWMI Books, Reports H040200, International Water Management Institute.
- Wichelns, Dennis & Oster, J.D., 2006. "Sustainable irrigation is necessary and achievable, but direct costs and environmental impacts can be substantial," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 86(1-2), pages 114-127, November.
- Khan, Shahbaz & Rana, Tariq & Hanjra, Munir A., 2008. "A cross disciplinary framework for linking farms with regional groundwater and salinity management targets," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 35-47, January.
- Salman Saif Ghouri, 2006. "Correlation between energy usage and the rate of economic development," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 30(1), pages 41-54, 03.
- Walter P. Falcon & Rosamond L. Naylor, 2005. "Rethinking Food Security for the Twenty-First Century," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1113-1127.
- Castillo, G. E. & Namara, Regassa & Ravnborg, H. M. & Hanjra, M. A. & Smith, L. & Hussein, M. H. & Bene, C. & Cook, S. & Hirsch, D. & Polak, P. & Valee, Domitille & van Koppen, Barbara, 2007. "Reversing the flow: agricultural water management pathways for poverty reduction," IWMI Books, Reports H040197, International Water Management Institute.
- Burnes, Ellen & Wichelns, Dennis & Hagen, John W., 2005. "Economic and policy implications of public support for ethanol production in California's San Joaquin Valley," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1155-1167, June.
- R. Maria Saleth & Ariel Dinar, 2004. "The Institutional Economics of Water : A Cross-Country Analysis of Institutions and Performance," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14884, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:34:y:2009:i:2:p:130-140. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.