IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jfinec/v100y2011i1p113-129.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Why do convertible issuers simultaneously repurchase stock? An arbitrage-based explanation

Author

Listed:
  • de Jong, Abe
  • Dutordoir, Marie
  • Verwijmeren, Patrick

Abstract

Over recent years, a substantial fraction of US convertible bond issues have been combined with a stock repurchase. This paper explores the motivations for these combined transactions. We argue that convertible debt issuers repurchase their stock to facilitate arbitrage-related short selling. In line with this prediction, we show that convertibles combined with a stock repurchase are associated with lower offering discounts, lower stock price pressure, higher expected hedging demand, and lower issue-date short selling than uncombined issues. We also find that convertible arbitrage strategies explain both the size and the speed of execution of the stock repurchases.

Suggested Citation

  • de Jong, Abe & Dutordoir, Marie & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2011. "Why do convertible issuers simultaneously repurchase stock? An arbitrage-based explanation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 113-129, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:100:y:2011:i:1:p:113-129
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304-405X(10)00252-7
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
    2. Stein, Jeremy C., 1992. "Convertible bonds as backdoor equity financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 3-21, August.
    3. Baker, Malcolm & Coval, Joshua & Stein, Jeremy C., 2007. "Corporate financing decisions when investors take the path of least resistance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 266-298, May.
    4. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    5. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Karl B. Diether & Kuan-Hui Lee & Ingrid M. Werner, 2009. "Short-Sale Strategies and Return Predictability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 575-607, February.
    7. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    8. Green, Richard C., 1984. "Investment incentives, debt, and warrants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 115-136, March.
    9. Brennan, Michael J & Kraus, Alan, 1987. " Efficient Financing under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(5), pages 1225-1243, December.
    10. Ikenberry, David & Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1995. "Market underreaction to open market share repurchases," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 181-208.
    11. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    12. Artyom Durnev & Randall Morck & Bernard Yeung & Paul Zarowin, 2003. "Does Greater Firm-Specific Return Variation Mean More or Less Informed Stock Pricing?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(5), pages 797-836, December.
    13. Yuriy Zabolotnyuk & Robert Jones & Chris Veld, 2010. "An Empirical Comparison of Convertible Bond Valuation Models," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 675-706, June.
    14. Owen Lamont, 2004. "Go Down Fighting: Short Seller vs. Firms," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2521, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Aug 2004.
    15. Asquith, Paul & Pathak, Parag A. & Ritter, Jay R., 2005. "Short interest, institutional ownership, and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 243-276, November.
    16. Craig M. Lewis & Richard J. Rogalski & James K. Seward, 1999. "Is Convertible Debt a Substitute for Straight Debt or for Common Equity?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 28(3), Fall.
    17. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    18. Mazzeo, Michael A & Moore, William T, 1992. "Liquidity Costs and Stock Price Response to Convertible Security Calls," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(3), pages 353-369, July.
    19. Clifford P. Stephens & Michael S. Weisbach, 1998. "Actual Share Reacquisitions in Open-Market Repurchase Programs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 313-333, February.
    20. Louis, Henock & White, Hal, 2007. "Do managers intentionally use repurchase tender offers to signal private information? Evidence from firm financial reporting behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 205-233, July.
    21. Dutordoir, Marie & Van de Gucht, Linda, 2007. "Are there windows of opportunity for convertible debt issuance? Evidence for Western Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2828-2846, September.
    22. Lewis, Craig M. & Rogalski, Richard J. & Seward, James K., 1998. "Agency Problems, Information Asymmetries, and Convertible Debt Security Design," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 32-59, January.
    23. Lasse Heje Pedersen & Mark Mitchell & Todd Pulvino, 2007. "Slow Moving Capital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 215-220, May.
    24. Darwin Choi & Mila Getmansky & Brian Henderson & Heather Tookes, 2010. "Convertible Bond Arbitrageurs as Suppliers of Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(6), pages 2492-2522, June.
    25. Hillion, Pierre & Vermaelen, Theo, 2004. "Death spiral convertibles," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 381-415, February.
    26. Stephen E. Christophe & Michael G. Ferri & James J. Angel, 2004. "Short-Selling Prior to Earnings Announcements," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1845-1876, August.
    27. Brent, Averil & Morse, Dale & Stice, E. Kay, 1990. "Short Interest: Explanations and Tests," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(02), pages 273-289, June.
    28. Mayers, David, 1998. "Why firms issue convertible bonds: the matching of financial and real investment options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 83-102, January.
    29. Dunn, Kenneth B. & Eades, Kenneth M., 1989. "Voluntary conversion of convertible securities and the optimal call strategy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 273-301, August.
    30. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    31. Davidson, Wallace N. & Glascock, John L. & Schwarz, Thomas V., 1995. "Signaling with Convertible Debt," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(03), pages 425-440, September.
    32. Edwards, Amy K. & Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 2010. "Short selling in initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 21-39, October.
    33. Bagwell, Laurie Simon, 1992. " Dutch Auction Repurchases: An Analysis of Shareholder Heterogeneity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 71-105, March.
    34. Korkeamaki, Timo P., 2005. "Effects of law on corporate financing practices--international evidence from convertible bond issues," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 809-831, October.
    35. Choi, Darwin & Getmansky, Mila & Tookes, Heather, 2009. "Convertible bond arbitrage, liquidity externalities, and stock prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 227-251, February.
    36. Vermaelen, Theo, 1984. "Repurchase Tender Offers, Signaling, and Managerial Incentives," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(02), pages 163-181, June.
    37. Lauren Cohen & Karl B. Diether & Christopher J. Malloy, 2007. "Supply and Demand Shifts in the Shorting Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(5), pages 2061-2096, October.
    38. Matthew T. Billett & Hui Xue, 2007. "The Takeover Deterrent Effect of Open Market Share Repurchases," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1827-1850, August.
    39. Bechmann, Ken L., 2004. "Short sales, price pressure, and the stock price response to convertible bond calls," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 427-451, October.
    40. Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. " Do Demand Curves for Stocks Slope Down?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(3), pages 579-590, July.
    41. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
    42. Michael J. Aitken & Alex Frino & Michael S. McCorry & Peter L. Swan, 1998. "Short Sales Are Almost Instantaneously Bad News: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2205-2223, December.
    43. Dittmar, Amy K, 2000. "Why Do Firms Repurchase Stock?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(3), pages 331-355, July.
    44. Ammann, Manuel & Kind, Axel & Wilde, Christian, 2003. "Are convertible bonds underpriced? An analysis of the French market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 635-653, April.
    45. Alex W. H. Chan & Nai-fu Chen, 2007. "Convertible Bond Underpricing: Renegotiable Covenants, Seasoning, and Convergence," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(11), pages 1793-1814, November.
    46. Senchack, A. J. & Starks, Laura T., 1993. "Short-Sale Restrictions and Market Reaction to Short-Interest Announcements," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(02), pages 177-194, June.
    47. Mark Mitchell & Todd Pulvino & Erik Stafford, 2004. "Price Pressure around Mergers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 31-63, February.
    48. Nianyun (Kelly) Cai & Jean Helwege & Arthur Warga, 2007. "Underpricing in the Corporate Bond Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(6), pages 2021-2046, November.
    49. Lewis, Craig M. & Rogalski, Richard J. & Seward, James K., 2003. "Industry conditions, growth opportunities and market reactions to convertible debt financing decisions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 153-181, January.
    50. Ackert, Lucy F. & Athanassakos, George, 2005. "The relationship between short interest and stock returns in the Canadian market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1729-1749, July.
    51. Lee, Gemma & Masulis, Ronald W., 2009. "Seasoned equity offerings: Quality of accounting information and expected flotation costs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 443-469, June.
    52. Jun-Koo, Kang & Lee, Yul W., 1996. "The pricing of convertible debt offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 231-248, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bruce D. Grundy & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2012. "Dividend-Protected Convertible Bonds and the Disappearance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-060/2/DSF37, Tinbergen Institute.
    2. Duca, Eric & Dutordoir, Marie & Veld, Chris & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2012. "Why are convertible bond announcements associated with increasingly negative issuer stock returns? An arbitrage-based explanation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2884-2899.
    3. Dutordoir, Marie & Li, Hui & Liu, Frank Hong & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2016. "Convertible bond announcement effects: Why is Japan different?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 76-92.
    4. Henderson, Brian J. & Zhao, Bo, 2014. "More than meets the eye: Convertible bond issuers' concurrent transactions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 57-79.
    5. Lewis, Craig M. & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2011. "Convertible security design and contract innovation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 809-831, September.
    6. Henk Berkman & Michael McKenzie & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2013. "Hole in the Wall: Informed Short Selling ahead of Private Placements," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-153/IV/DSF62, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Dutordoir, Marie & Lewis, Craig & Seward, James & Veld, Chris, 2014. "What we do and do not know about convertible bond financing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 3-20.
    8. repec:bla:acctfi:v:56:y:2016:i:4:p:1149-1185 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Christian Dorion & Pascal François & Gunnar Grass & Alexandre Jeanneret, 2014. "Convertible Debt and Shareholder Incentives," Cahiers de recherche 1403, CIRPEE.
    10. Lewis, Craig & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2014. "Cash-settled convertible bonds and the value relevance of their accounting treatment," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 101-111.
    11. repec:eee:empfin:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:237-249 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Li, Xiaoyang & Lin, Shannon & Tucker, Alan L., 2016. "The curious case of converts," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 1-17.
    13. Bechmann, Ken L. & Lunde, Asger & Zebedee, Allan A., 2014. "In- and out-of-the-money convertible bond calls: Signaling or price pressure?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 135-148.
    14. Dorion, Christian & François, Pascal & Grass, Gunnar & Jeanneret, Alexandre, 2014. "Convertible debt and shareholder incentives," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 38-56.
    15. Grundy, Bruce D. & Veld, Chris & Verwijmeren, Patrick & Zabolotnyuk, Yuriy, 2014. "Why are conversion-forcing call announcements associated with negative wealth effects?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 149-157.
    16. Hillert, Alexander & Maug, Ernst & Obernberger, Stefan, 2016. "Stock repurchases and liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(1), pages 186-209.
    17. Lin, Ji-Chai & Stephens, Clifford P. & Wu, YiLin, 2014. "Limited attention, share repurchases, and takeover risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 283-301.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:100:y:2011:i:1:p:113-129. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.