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Encountering female politicians

Author

Listed:
  • Joo, Hailey Hayeon
  • Lee, Jungmin

Abstract

The mandated exposure effect on voting represents a mechanism through which affirmative action policies such as quotas can improve prospects for candidates from underrepresented groups. In this paper, we identify an exposure effect by exploiting unintended variation in female candidates’ electoral results in a natural experimental setting. In a 2006 local council election in Korea, the names of candidates nominated by the same party for a ward appeared on the ballot in alphabetical order (based on the Korean alphabet). As a result, in certain districts, some female candidates were arbitrarily elected, based on their name-order advantage. In the subsequent election, those elected females were more likely to be nominated by the party and to win seats again. However, the accidental exposure to female politicians failed to generate positive spillover for other female candidates.

Suggested Citation

  • Joo, Hailey Hayeon & Lee, Jungmin, 2018. "Encountering female politicians," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 88-122.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:151:y:2018:i:c:p:88-122
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2018.05.004
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lori Beaman & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo & Rohini Pande & Petia Topalova, 2009. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(4), pages 1497-1540.
    2. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
    3. Irma Clots-Figueras, 2012. "Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 212-244, January.
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    6. Baltrunaite, Audinga & Bello, Piera & Casarico, Alessandra & Profeta, Paola, 2014. "Gender quotas and the quality of politicians," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 62-74.
    7. Ferreira, Fernando & Gyourko, Joseph, 2014. "Does gender matter for political leadership? The case of U.S. mayors," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 24-39.
    8. Alberto Abadie & Susan Athey & Guido Imbens & Jeffrey Wooldridge, 2017. "When Should You Adjust Standard Errors for Clustering?," Papers 1710.02926, arXiv.org, revised Oct 2017.
    9. Francesca Refsum Jensenius, 2015. "Development from Representation? A Study of Quotas for the Scheduled Castes in India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 196-220, July.
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    13. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exposure effect; Gender; Voting; Ballot order; Natural experiment;

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • H70 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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