IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A more comprehensive understanding and measure of customer helping behavior


  • Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins
  • Rapp, Adam


We develop a more comprehensive measure of discretionary, extra-role behaviors that customers engage in to help a company. While customer helping behaviors have been studied previously, attempts to develop valid measures have been limited. We use the validation process for the Organizational Citizenship Behavior scale as a model to develop and validate a new scale measuring a comprehensive range of customer helping behaviors. We identify multiple dimensions of customer helping behaviors that are engaged in by the same customers, driven by the same antecedents, and collectively form a helping behaviors scale. Using student samples and customers of a non-profit organization, we demonstrate a consistent scale structure, reliability, and nomological and external validity. We present two variations of the scale, one for for-profit companies and one for non-profit organizations. This scale is intended to be used as a dependent behavioral measure to enable researchers to capture multiple customer helping behaviors.

Suggested Citation

  • Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins & Rapp, Adam, 2010. "A more comprehensive understanding and measure of customer helping behavior," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(8), pages 787-792, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:63:y:2010:i:8:p:787-792

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hardesty, David M. & Bearden, William O., 2004. "The use of expert judges in scale development: Implications for improving face validity of measures of unobservable constructs," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 98-107, February.
    2. Bove, Liliana L. & Pervan, Simon J. & Beatty, Sharon E. & Shiu, Edward, 2009. "Service worker role in encouraging customer organizational citizenship behaviors," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(7), pages 698-705, July.
    3. Barksdale, Kevin & Werner, Jon M., 2001. "Managerial ratings of in-role behaviors, organizational citizenship behaviors, and overall performance: testing different models of their relationship," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 145-155, February.
    4. Unger, Lynette S., 1991. "Altruism as a motivation to volunteer," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 71-100, March.
    5. Muniz, Albert M, Jr & O'Guinn, Thomas C, 2001. " Brand Community," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(4), pages 412-432, March.
    6. Fournier, Susan, 1998. " Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(4), pages 343-373, March.
    7. Paulin, Michele & Ferguson, Ronald J. & Bergeron, Jasmin, 2006. "Service climate and organizational commitment: The importance of customer linkages," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(8), pages 906-915, August.
    8. Ackfeldt, Anna-Lena & Coote, Leonard V., 2005. "A study of organizational citizenship behaviors in a retail setting," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 151-159, February.
    9. Baker, Thomas L. & Hunt, Tammy G. & Andrews, Martha C., 2006. "Promoting ethical behavior and organizational citizenship behaviors: The influence of corporate ethical values," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(7), pages 849-857, July.
    10. Sargeant, Adrian & Ford, John B. & West, Douglas C., 2006. "Perceptual determinants of nonprofit giving behavior," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 155-165, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Balaji, M.S. & Roy, Sanjit Kumar & Sadeque, Saalem, 2016. "Antecedents and consequences of university brand identification," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(8), pages 3023-3032.
    2. Sarkar Sengupta, Aditi & Balaji, M.S. & Krishnan, Balaji C., 2015. "How customers cope with service failure? A study of brand reputation and customer satisfaction," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 665-674.
    3. Andrijana Kos Kavran & Ljerka Cerovic & Adriana Jelusic, 2015. "Socially Responsible Consumer Behaviour," Economy of eastern Croatia yesterday, today, tommorow, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Economics, Croatia, vol. 4, pages 703-712.
    4. repec:eee:jouret:v:88:y:2012:i:3:p:384-398 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:touman:v:42:y:2014:i:c:p:88-100 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Nyadzayo, Munyaradzi W. & Matanda, Margaret J. & Ewing, Michael T., 2015. "The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(9), pages 1886-1894.
    7. repec:spr:manint:v:52:y:2012:i:3:d:10.1007_s11575-011-0097-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:10:p:3509-:d:172941 is not listed on IDEAS


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:63:y:2010:i:8:p:787-792. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.