Antecedents of growth through mergers and acquisitions: Empirical results from Belgium
This paper empirically investigates the antecedents of growth through mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in a typical continental European country, Belgium. The article reports on a study using data on 484 private and listed bidders engaging in 990 M&As during 1997-2007, and matches this sample with companies that did not pursue any external growth. By analyzing firm characteristics, industry, and aggregate financial market variables, the study can also discern the motives that are important in the decision to acquire. The results show that neither the firm's cash position nor its cash-generating abilities influence its choice to grow externally. Yet, intangible assets affect the M&A decision positively, whereas ownership concentration and bank loans have a negative effect. In industries where incumbents are operating at a lower scale and in more highly concentrated industries, the odds of firms participating in M&As are larger. Industry deregulation, industry growth, and financial market conditions have no influence. These findings are largely comparable across listed and private firms. Yet, the data do reveal that the operating scale of industry incumbents and industry concentration matter only in horizontal and domestic takeover decisions.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998.
"Law and Finance,"
3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, "undated". "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Sorensen, Donald E., 2000. "Characteristics of merging firms," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 423-433.
- Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
- George, R. & Kabir, M.R. & Douma, S.W., 2004.
"Business Groups and Profit Redistribution : A Boon or Bane for Firms,"
2004-124, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- George, Rejie & Kabir, Rezaul, 2008. "Business groups and profit redistribution: A boon or bane for firms?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(9), pages 1004-1014, September.
- Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
- Palepu, Krishna G., 1986. "Predicting takeover targets : A methodological and empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-35, March.
- Randall Morck & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1989.
"Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?,"
NBER Working Papers
3000, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrade, Gregor & Stafford, Erik, 2004. "Investigating the economic role of mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 1-36, January.
- Erik Devos & Palani-Rajan Kadapakkam & Srinivasan Krishnamurthy, 2009. "How Do Mergers Create Value? A Comparison of Taxes, Market Power, and Efficiency Improvements as Explanations for Synergies," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 1179-1211, March.
- Ronan G. Powell, 2001. "Takeover Prediction and Portfolio Performance: A Note," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(7&8), pages 993-1011.
- Dietrich, J. Kimball & Sorensen, Eric, 1984. "An application of logit analysis to prediction of merger targets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 393-402, September.
- Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2006.
"Mergers and Acquisitions in Europe,"
2006-003, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
- Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 2001.
"Stock Market Driven Acquisitions,"
NBER Working Papers
8439, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hay, Donald A & Liu, Guy S, 1998. "When Do Firms Go in for Growth by Acquisitions?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(2), pages 143-164, May.
- Krishnan, Ranjani A. & Krishnan, Hema, 2003. "Effects of hospital mergers and acquisitions on prices," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 56(8), pages 647-656, August.
- Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
- Mara Faccio & Ronald W. Masulis, 2005. "The Choice of Payment Method in European Mergers and Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1345-1388, 06.
- Malmendier, Ulrike M. & Tate, Geoffrey, 2003.
"Who Makes Acquisitions? CEO Overconfidence and the Market's Reaction,"
1798, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Malmendier, Ulrike & Tate, Geoffrey, 2008. "Who makes acquisitions? CEO overconfidence and the market's reaction," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 20-43, July.
- Ulrike Malmendier & Geoffrey Tate, 2004. "Who Makes Acquisitions? CEO Overconfidence and the Market's Reaction," NBER Working Papers 10813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Norton, Edgar, 1993. "Test of the rationale for conglomerate merger: Agency costs or pecking order?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 251-261, March.
- Powell, Ronan & Yawson, Alfred, 2005. "Industry aspects of takeovers and divestitures: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 3015-3040, December.
- Céspedes, Jacelly & González, Maximiliano & Molina, Carlos A., 2010. "Ownership and capital structure in Latin America," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 248-254, March.
- Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 1993. "Mergers and Market Power: Evidence from the Airline Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 549-569, June.
- Giannetti, M., 2000.
"Do Better Institutions Mitigate Agency Problems? Evidence from Corporate Finance Choices,"
376, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
- Giannetti, Mariassunta, 2003. "Do Better Institutions Mitigate Agency Problems? Evidence from Corporate Finance Choices," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 185-212, March.
- Mariassunta Giannetti, 2000. "Do Better Institutions Mitigate Agency Problems? Evidence from Corporate Finance Choices," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 376, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P., 2005. "Global diversification and bidder gains: A comparison between cross-border and domestic acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 533-564, March.
- David J. Denis & Diane K. Denis & Keven Yost, 2002. "Global Diversification, Industrial Diversification, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1951-1979, October.
- Nam-Hoon Kang & Sara Johansson, 2000. "Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: Their Role in Industrial Globalisation," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2000/1, OECD Publishing.
- Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:63:y:2010:i:4:p:392-403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.