IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/corfin/v45y2017icp162-175.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

CEO political ideology and mergers and acquisitions decisions

Author

Listed:
  • Elnahas, Ahmed M.
  • Kim, Dongnyoung

Abstract

We examine the relation between CEOs political ideology and their firms' investment decisions, particularly their M&A decisions. Employing individual financial contributions data for the period from 1993 to 2006, we find that firm's investment decisions vary with CEO's political ideology. Our evidence indicates that Republican CEOs are less likely to engage in M&A activities. When they do undertake acquisitions, they are more likely to use cash as the method of payment, and their targets are more likely to be public firms and to be from the same industry. Further, Republican CEOs tend to avoid high information asymmetry acquisitions that involve the use of “earnout” clauses. Conditional on the merger, CEO political ideology appears to have a significantly impact on long-run firm valuation. However, we find no evidence that CEO political ideology creates value in the short-run. All our results are robust to controlling for CEO overconfidence.

Suggested Citation

  • Elnahas, Ahmed M. & Kim, Dongnyoung, 2017. "CEO political ideology and mergers and acquisitions decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 162-175.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:162-175
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2017.04.013
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929119917302511
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2017.04.013?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ulrike Malmendier & Geoffrey Tate, 2005. "CEO Overconfidence and Corporate Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2661-2700, December.
    2. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990. "Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
    3. Gordon M. Phillips & Alexei Zhdanov, 2013. "R&D and the Incentives from Merger and Acquisition Activity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(1), pages 34-78.
    4. Hong, Harrison & Kostovetsky, Leonard, 2012. "Red and blue investing: Values and finance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 1-19.
    5. Fishman, Michael J, 1989. " Preemptive Bidding and the Role of the Medium of Exchange in Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 41-57, March.
    6. repec:oup:rfinst:v:26:y::i:1:p:34-78 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Hansen, Robert G. & Lott, John R., 1996. "Externalities and Corporate Objectives in a World with Diversified Shareholder/Consumers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(1), pages 43-68, March.
    8. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Sun, Xian & Wu, Qiang, 2016. "CEO political preference and corporate tax sheltering," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 37-53.
    9. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Gerard Roland, 2017. "Culture, Institutions, and the Wealth of Nations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 99(3), pages 402-416, July.
    10. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    11. Michael J. Cooper & Huseyin Gulen & Alexei V. Ovtchinnikov, 2010. "Corporate Political Contributions and Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(2), pages 687-724, April.
    12. Cain, Matthew D. & Denis, David J. & Denis, Diane K., 2006. "Earnouts: A Study of Financial Contracting in Acquisition Agreements," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1196, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
    13. Brian Cadman & Richard Carrizosa & Lucile Faurel, 2014. "Economic Determinants and Information Environment Effects of Earnouts: New Insights from SFAS 141(R)," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 37-74, March.
    14. Lang, Larry & Ofek, Eli & Stulz, Rene M., 1996. "Leverage, investment, and firm growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 3-29, January.
    15. Linn, Scott C. & Switzer, Jeannette A., 2001. "Are cash acquisitions associated with better postcombination operating performance than stock acquisitions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1113-1138, June.
    16. Raghuram Rajan & Henri Servaes & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "The Cost of Diversity: The Diversification Discount and Inefficient Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 35-80, February.
    17. Malmendier, Ulrike & Tate, Geoffrey, 2008. "Who makes acquisitions? CEO overconfidence and the market's reaction," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 20-43, July.
    18. Unsal, Omer & Hassan, M. Kabir & Zirek, Duygu, 2016. "Corporate lobbying, CEO political ideology and firm performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 126-149.
    19. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    20. Abigail Barr & Chris Wallace & Jean Ensminger & Joseph Henrich & Clark Barrette & Alexander Bolyanatz & Juan Camilo Cardenas & Michael Gurven & Edwins Gwako & Carolyn Lesorogol & Frank Marlowe & Richa, 2009. "Homo Æqualis: A Cross-Society Experimental Analysis of Three Bargaining Games," CSAE Working Paper Series 2009-02, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    21. Kohers, Ninon & Ang, James, 2000. "Earnouts in Mergers: Agreeing to Disagree and Agreeing to Stay," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(3), pages 445-476, July.
    22. Andy C.W. Chui & Sheridan Titman & K.C. John Wei, 2010. "Individualism and Momentum around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 361-392, February.
    23. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2006. "Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 23-48, Spring.
    24. Lievenbrück, Martin & Schmid, Thomas, 2014. "Why do firms (not) hedge? — Novel evidence on cultural influence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 92-106.
    25. Hansen, Robert G, 1987. "A Theory for the Choice of Exchange Medium in Mergers and Acquisitions," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 75-95, January.
    26. Tate, Geoffrey & Yang, Liu, 2015. "Female leadership and gender equity: Evidence from plant closure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 77-97.
    27. Agrawal, Anup & Jaffe, Jeffrey F & Mandelker, Gershon N, 1992. "The Post-merger Performance of Acquiring Firms: A Re-examination of an Anomaly," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1605-1621, September.
    28. Andrade, Gregor & Stafford, Erik, 2004. "Investigating the economic role of mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 1-36, January.
    29. Mariassunta Giannetti & Yishay Yafeh, 2012. "Do Cultural Differences Between Contracting Parties Matter? Evidence from Syndicated Bank Loans," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(2), pages 365-383, February.
    30. Jarrad Harford & Kai Li, 2007. "Decoupling CEO Wealth and Firm Performance: The Case of Acquiring CEOs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 917-949, April.
    31. Hessel Oosterbeek & Randolph Sloof & Gijs van de Kuilen, 2004. "Cultural Differences in Ultimatum Game Experiments: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 7(2), pages 171-188, June.
    32. Martin, Kenneth J, 1996. "The Method of Payment in Corporate Acquisitions, Investment Opportunities, and Management Ownership," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1227-1246, September.
    33. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Boubakri, Narjess & Saffar, Walid, 2016. "Culture and externally financed firm growth," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 502-520.
    35. Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1991. "A test of the free cash flow hypothesis*1: The case of bidder returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 315-335, October.
    36. Servaes, Henri, 1991. "Tobin's Q and the Gains from Takeovers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 409-419, March.
    37. Lewellen, Wilbur G, 1971. "A Pure Financial Rationale for the Conglomerate Merger," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 521-537, May.
    38. Brown, David T & Ryngaert, Michael D, 1991. "The Mode of Acquisition in Takeovers: Taxes and Asymmetric Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 653-669, June.
    39. Jeffrey J Reuer & Oded Shenkar & Roberto Ragozzino, 2004. "Mitigating risk in international mergers and acquisitions: the role of contingent payouts," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 19-32, January.
    40. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    41. Marianne Bertrand & Antoinette Schoar, 2003. "Managing with Style: The Effect of Managers on Firm Policies," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1169-1208.
    42. Mulherin, J. Harold & Boone, Audra L., 2000. "Comparing acquisitions and divestitures," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 117-139, July.
    43. E. Lukas & C. Heimann, 2014. "Technological-induced information asymmetry, M&As and earnouts: stock market evidence from Germany," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(7), pages 481-493, April.
    44. Hutton, Irena & Jiang, Danling & Kumar, Alok, 2014. "Corporate Policies of Republican Managers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(5-6), pages 1279-1310, December.
    45. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    46. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Firm size and the gains from acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 201-228, August.
    47. Li, Kai & Griffin, Dale & Yue, Heng & Zhao, Longkai, 2013. "How does culture influence corporate risk-taking?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 1-22.
    48. Yi Liu & Samuel H. Szewczyk & Zaher Zantout, 2008. "Underreaction to Dividend Reductions and Omissions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 987-1020, April.
    49. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
    50. Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1987. "Corporate Takeover Bids, Methods of Payment, and Bidding Firms' Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 943-963, September.
    51. Datar, Srikant & Frankel, Richard & Wolfson, Mark, 2001. "Earnouts: The Effects of Adverse Selection and Agency Costs on Acquisition Techniques," The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(1), pages 201-238, April.
    52. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
    53. Lang, Larry H P & Stulz, Rene M, 1994. "Tobin's q, Corporate Diversification, and Firm Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1248-1280, December.
    54. Saeyoung Chang, 1998. "Takeovers of Privately Held Targets, Methods of Payment, and Bidder Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 773-784, April.
    55. Yim, Soojin, 2013. "The acquisitiveness of youth: CEO age and acquisition behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 250-273.
    56. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    57. Kathleen Fuller & Jeffry Netter & Mike Stegemoller, 2002. "What Do Returns to Acquiring Firms Tell Us? Evidence from Firms That Make Many Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1763-1793, August.
    58. Campbell, T. Colin & Gallmeyer, Michael & Johnson, Shane A. & Rutherford, Jessica & Stanley, Brooke W., 2011. "CEO optimism and forced turnover," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 695-712, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Cohen, Alma & Hazan, Moshe & Weiss, David, 2020. "Politics and Gender in the Executive Suite," CEPR Discussion Papers 14513, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Siew-Boey Yeoh & Chee-Wooi Hooy, 2022. "CEO age and risk-taking of family business in Malaysia: The inverse S-curve relationship," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 273-293, March.
    3. James A. Brander & Edward J. Egan & Sophie Endl, 2021. "Comparing CEO Compensation Effects of Public and Private Acquisitions," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-19, April.
    4. Bhandari, Avishek & Golden, Joanna, 2021. "CEO political preference and credit ratings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    5. Özgür, Arslan-Ayaydin & Thewissen, James & Torsin, Wouter, 2021. "Earnings Management Methods and CEO Political Affiliation," LIDAM Discussion Papers LFIN 2021017, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Finance (LFIN).
    6. Han, Yu & Chi, Wei & Zhou, Jinyi, 2022. "Prosocial imprint: CEO childhood famine experience and corporate philanthropic donation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1604-1618.
    7. Renneboog, Luc & Vansteenkiste, Cara, 2019. "Failure and success in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 650-699.
    8. Nguyen, Giang & Vu, Le, 2021. "Does venture capital syndication affect mergers and acquisitions?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    9. Iskandar-Datta, Mai & Shekhar, Shriya, 2020. "Do insider CFOs deliver better acquisition performance?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 240-252.
    10. Shuangyan Li & Anum Shahzadi & Mingbo Zheng & Chun-Ping Chang, 2022. "The impacts of executives’ political connections on interactions between firm’s mergers, acquisitions, and performance," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 653-679, May.
    11. Wang, Qiping & Lau, Raymond Yiu Keung & Xie, Haoran, 2021. "The impact of social executives on firms’ mergers and acquisitions strategies: A difference-in-differences analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 343-354.
    12. Nguyen, Thi Hong Hanh & Ntim, Collins G. & Malagila, John K., 2020. "Women on corporate boards and corporate financial and non-financial performance: A systematic literature review and future research agenda," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).
    13. Kim, Incheol & Ryou, Ji Woo & Yang, Rong, 2020. "The color of shareholders' money: Institutional shareholders' political values and corporate environmental disclosure," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    14. Plaksina, Yulia & Gallagher, Liam & Dowling, Michael, 2019. "CEO social status and M&A decision making," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 282-300.
    15. Boone, Audra & Uysal, Vahap B., 2020. "Reputational concerns in the market for corporate control," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    16. Li, Lu & Duan, Yang & He, Yuqian & Chan, Kam C., 2018. "Linguistic distance and mergers and acquisitions: Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 81-102.
    17. Saad Alnahedh & Bader Alhashel, 2021. "Political ideology in M&A," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(9-10), pages 1711-1746, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2005. "Takeover Waves : Triggers, Performance and Motives," Discussion Paper 2005-029, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    2. Martynova, M., 2006. "The market for corporate control and corporate governance regulation in Europe," Other publications TiSEM 8651e281-4914-41f2-ac14-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    3. Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "A century of corporate takeovers: What have we learned and where do we stand?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2148-2177, October.
    4. Eckbo, B. Espen, 2009. "Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 149-178, February.
    5. Andrey Golubov & Dimitris Petmezas & Nickolaos G. Travlos, 2013. "Empirical mergers and acquisitions research: a review of methods, evidence and managerial implications," Chapters, in: Adrian R. Bell & Chris Brooks & Marcel Prokopczuk (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Finance, chapter 12, pages 287-313, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Elnahas, Ahmed M. & Kabir Hassan, M. & Ismail, Ghada M., 2017. "Religion and mergers and acquisitions contracting: The case of earnout agreements," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 221-246.
    7. Szilagyi, P.G., 2007. "Corporate governance and the agency costs of debt and outside equity," Other publications TiSEM 9520d40a-224f-43a8-9bf9-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    8. Mario Fischer, 2015. "Challenging the payment effect in bank-financed takeovers," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 347-376, October.
    9. Andriosopoulos, Dimitris & Yang, Shuai & Li, Wei-an, 2016. "The market valuation of M&A announcements in the United Kingdom," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 350-366.
    10. Ivo Jansen & Lee Sanning & Nathan Stuart, 2015. "Do hubris and the information environment explain the effect of acquirers’ size on their gains from acquisitions?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 39(2), pages 211-234, April.
    11. Renneboog, Luc & Vansteenkiste, Cara, 2019. "Failure and success in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 650-699.
    12. Nagano, Mamoru & Yuan, Yuan, 2013. "Cross-border acquisitions in a transition economy: The recent experiences of China and India," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 66-79.
    13. Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2006. "The Performance of the European Market for Corporate Control : Evidence from the 5th Takeover Wave," Discussion Paper 2006-118, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    14. Bhagat, Sanjai & Dong, Ming & Hirshleifer, David & Noah, Robert, 2005. "Do tender offers create value? New methods and evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 3-60, April.
    15. Robert W. Faff & Abeyratna Gunasekarage & Syed M. M. Shams, 2020. "Does takeover competition affect acquisition choices and bidding firm performance? Australian evidence," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 60(4), pages 3581-3619, December.
    16. Feito-Ruiz, Isabel & Menéndez-Requejo, Susana, 2011. "Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in different legal environments," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 169-187, September.
    17. Gao, Ning, 2011. "The adverse selection effect of corporate cash reserve: Evidence from acquisitions solely financed by stock," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 789-808, September.
    18. Elif Akben Selcuk & Halil Kiymaz, 2015. "The Impact Of Diversifying Acquisitions On Shareholder Wealth: Evidence From Turkish Acquirers," The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 9(3), pages 19-32.
    19. Alexandridis, G. & Antypas, N. & Travlos, N., 2017. "Value creation from M&As: New evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 632-650.
    20. Martin Bugeja & Meiting Lu & Yaowen Shan & Thomas To, 2021. "The probability of informed trading and mergers and acquisitions," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 61(1), pages 169-203, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    CEO political ideology; Mergers and acquisitions; Conservatism; Overconfidence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:162-175. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.