Tobin's Q, Corporate Diversification and Firm Performance
In this paper, we show that Tobin's q and firm diversification are negatively related. This negative relation holds for different diversification measures and when we control for other known determinants of q. We show further that diversified firms have lower q's than equivalent portfolios of specialized firms. This negative relation holds throughout the 1980s in our sample. Finally, it holds for firms that have kept their number of segments constant over a number of years as well as for firms that have not. In our sample, firms that increase their number of segments have lower q's than firms that keep their number of segment constant. Our evidence is consistent with the view that firms seek growth through diversification when they have exhausted internal growth opportunities. We fail to find evidence supportive of the view that diversification provides firms with a valuable intangible asset
|Date of creation:||Jun 1993|
|Publication status:||published as Journal of Political Economy, December 1994, 1248-1280|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
- Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990.
" Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
- Randall Morck & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1989. "Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," NBER Working Papers 3000, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1990. "Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," Scholarly Articles 27693803, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Franks, Julian & Harris, Robert & Titman, Sheridan, 1991. "The postmerger share-price performance of acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 81-96, March.
- Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1991. "A test of the free cash flow hypothesis*1: The case of bidder returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 315-335, October.
- Kaplan, Steven N & Weisbach, Michael S, 1992. " The Success of Acquisitions: Evidence from Divestitures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 107-138, March.
- Steven Kaplan & Michael S. Weisbach, 1990. "The Success of Acquisitions: Evidence From Disvestitures," NBER Working Papers 3484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peltzman, Sam, 1977. "The Gains and Losses from Industrial Concentration," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(2), pages 229-263, October.
- Sam Peltzman, 1977. "The Gains and Losses From Industrial Concentration," NBER Working Papers 0163, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Morck, Randall & Yeung, Bernard, 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 165-187, April.
- Morck, R. & Yeung, B., 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," Working Papers 282, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
- Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Weston, J Fred & Smith, Keith V & Shrieves, Ronald E, 1972. "Conglomerate Performance Using the Capital Asset Pricing Model," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(4), pages 357-363, November.
- Schwert, G. William, 1983. "Size and stock returns, and other empirical regularities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 3-12, June.
- Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1991. "The Managerial Response to Regulation of Financial Reporting for Segments of a Business Enterprise," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 241-249, September.
- L. Wade, 1988. "Review," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 99-100, July.
- John, Kose & Lang, Larry H P & Netter, Jeffry, 1992. " The Voluntary Restructuring of Large Firms in Response to Performance Decline," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 891-917, July.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
- Lichtenberg, Frank R., 1992. "Industrial de-diversification and its consequences for productivity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 427-438, August.
- Frank R. Lichtenberg, 1990. "Industrial De-Diversification and Its Consequences for Productivity," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_35, Levy Economics Institute.
- Frank R. Lichtenberg, 1990. "Industrial De-Diversification and its Consequences for Productivity," NBER Working Papers 3231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:fth:michin:282 is not listed on IDEAS
- Donaldson, Gordon, 1990. "Voluntary restructuring : The case of General Mills," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 117-141, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4376. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.